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Chapter 16

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Chapter 16

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  1. Chapter 16 Scientific Revolution

  2. What developments contributed to the Scientific Revolution? • Renaissance humanists mastered Greek and were then open to works of Galen, Ptolemy, Archimedes, Plato • Renaissance artists’ close observation of nature established new standards for the study of natural phenomena • Painters needed knowledge of geometry and anatomy • Da Vinci declared mathematics integral to artists • Proliferation of books spurred innovation • Telescope, microscope • Hermeticism(divinity is in all aspects of nature, magic, mysticism) inspired astrology and alchemy

  3. Group Project • Seven groups (2-3) • You and your partner (or partners) will select a committee from the list to give a brief report on • Summarize how your topic played a part in Scientific Revolution and the emergence of modern science • The report is to be two minutes and done with… • Sock puppets!

  4. Topics • Astronomy • Newton • Medicine • Women • Scientific Method • Science & Religion • Spread of Science

  5. Astronomy Presentation

  6. Greatest Achievements in Sci Revolution: Astronomy, Mechanics, Medicine • Ptolemaic Conception: geocentric, earth at the center • Earth is made of earth, air, fire, water and always changing • Spheres that surround earth are crystalline, transparent, and move in circular orbits (Aristotle said circle=most perfect) • 10 bodies in all, our universe was finite with God/Heaven beyond

  7. Greatest Achievements in Sci Revolution: Astronomy, Mechanics, Medicine • Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543) polish mathematician – not astronomer- used old models, own computations • On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres • Heliocentric conception- sun in center, planets revolve around sun, moon revolves around Earth • Kept circular orbits • Waited until deathbed to publish, scared and embarrassed • Created uncertainty about human role in universe & God’s location • Protestants reacted harshly based on literal translation of Bible

  8. Greatest Achievements in Sci Revolution: Astronomy, Mechanics, Medicine • Tycho Brahe (1546-1601) • Compiled detailed records of observations and movements of stars and planets • Rejected Aristotelian-Ptolemaic system • Unable to accept Copernicus • Johannes Kepler(1571-1630) • Brahe’s assistant • Three laws • Orbits not circular but elliptical • Speed of planet is greater when it is closer to sun (disproved Aristotle’s idea that motion is steady and fixed) • Planets with larger orbits revolve slower Greatest Mustache in History Nominee

  9. Greatest Achievements in Sci Revolution: Astronomy, Mechanics, Medicine • Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) • Mathematician used telescope to observe heavens • The Starry Messenger(1610) • Planets made of similar stuff to ours! Mountains and craters on moon, moons revolving around Jupiter, phases of Venus, sunspots • Stunned Europeans more than Copernicus and Kepler • Firm believer in heliocentric system • Roman Inquisition ordered Galileo to condemn Copernicus

  10. Greatest Achievements in Sci Revolution: Astronomy, Mechanics, Medicine • Galileo Galilei(1564-1642) • Dialogue on the Two Chief World Systems: Ptolemaic and Copernican • Written in Italian, making it more widely available, alarmed church • Found guilty of teaching Copernicus, put under house arrest • Problem of Motion- Aristotle held that an object remained at rest unless a force was applied against it and stopped when force stopped • What power was moving the planets? • Galileo discovered inertia- bodies stay in motion unless deflected by external forces

  11. Greatest Achievements in Sci Revolution: Astronomy, Mechanics, Medicine • Isaac Newton (1642-1727) • Invented calculus- mathematical means of calculating rates of change • Principia(1686) • Mathematical proofs for law of gravitation • Three laws of motion • Every object in motion stays in motion until deflected • Rate of change of motion is proportional to force against it • Every action has an equal and opposite reaction • Apply to the universe- all can be explained through math • Gravity creates orbits • Widely accepted in England, not so much elsewhere

  12. Isaac Newton Presentation

  13. Galileo vs. Newton • Collins Type II • Track the changes of the thought in astronomy from Ptolemy & Aristotle to Isaac Newton

  14. Medicine Presentation

  15. Greatest Achievements in Sci Revolution: Astronomy, Mechanics, Medicine • Galen • Greek physician in 2nd Century CE influenced all others • Paracelsus(1493-1541) • applied chemical remedies “like cures like” • Andreas Vesalius(1514-1564) • On the Fabric of the Human Body • blood comes from the heart (yes) two kinds of blood (no) • William Harvey(1578-1657) • On the Motion of the Heart and Blood • Blood comes from heart • all same blood in veins and arteries • Blood makes complete circuit

  16. New opportunities for elite women emerged in Humanism • Margaret Cavendish (1623-1673) • Aristocrat taught in Humanist schooling • Participant in crucial scientific debates • Excluded from membership in Royal Society • Maria Merian(1647-1717) • Entomologist trained in her father’s workshop • Metamorphosis of the Insects of Surinam • Maria Winkelmann(1670-1720) • German astronomer, self and family taught • Excluded from Royal Society

  17. Women Presentation

  18. Opportunities for women in science limited… by science • Querelles des femmes- arguments about women • Women argued they were equal to men in ability • 18th century Anatomy “proved” women were designed to bear children and excluded further from learning and science • Modern science saw a male takeover of traditional roles for women like midwivery

  19. DBQ • Analyze and discuss attitudes and reactions toward the participation of women in the sciences during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. • Limit yourself to 45 minutes! (that’s a study hall) • T-thesis • A-all • B-bias • L-link • E-evaluate

  20. Scientific Method Presentation

  21. All answers can be found in reason • Rene Descartes (1596-1650) • French lower nobility, Jesuit education, studied law • Discourse on Method (1637) • I think, therefore I am • Emphasis on the mind: only accept things that reason proved • Cartesian dualism: duality between mind and matter, the mind is separate and therefore can study matter with reason • Rationalism: reason and experience are chief sources of knowledge

  22. All answers can be found in reason • Francis Bacon (1561-1626) • Empiricism: experiment and induction • Scientific Method: systematic observations and experiments used to arrive at general concepts

  23. Science & Religion Presentation

  24. Science and Religion • Benedict de Spinoza (1632-1677) • Could not accept separating the mind from matter or God from science • Ethics Demonstrated in the Geometrical Manner • God is not just the creator of the universe, he IS the universe • Failure to understand God leads to many misconceptions • Women were naturally inferior to women • Blaise Pascal (1623-1662) • Pensées • Tried to convert rationalists to Christianity by appealing to their reason and emotions- You can’t know everything, only God can • God is a reasonable bet – if he exists, you win, if he doesn’t , you have nothing to lose

  25. Spread of Science Presentation