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Incident Management

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Incident Management

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  1. 14 Incident Management

  2. Learning Objectives 14.1 Apply the National Incident Management System to a mass casualty incident. 14.2 Describe the major components of an incident management system. 14.3 Describe the functions of the incident commander at all EMS incidents.

  3. Learning Objectives (Cont.) 14.4 Describe the Federal typing of the EMS resources. 14.5 Identify the component of an EMS strike team and EMS task force. 14.6 Map the Federal requirement and resources for NIMS training and EMS.

  4. Learning Objectives (Cont.) 14.7 Apply incident management concepts to EMS incidents. 14.8 Develop an incident management system for an EMS incident.

  5. Background • Homeland Security Presidential Directive-5 (HSPD-5) • President Bush called on the secretary of the Department of Homeland Security to develop a national incident management system to provide a consistent nationwide approach for federal, state, tribal, and local governments to work together to prepare for, prevent, respond to, and recover from domestic incidents, regardless of cause, size, or complexity

  6. Background (Cont.) • NIMS represents a core set of doctrines, principles, terminology, and organizational processes to enable effective, efficient, and collaborative incident management at all levels • To provide the framework for interoperability and compatibility, the NIMS is based on a balance between flexibility and standardization

  7. Background (Cont.) • Recent report of the “9/11 Commission” recommends national adoption of the ICS to enhance command, control, and communications capabilities

  8. The History of Incident Command System • The concept of ICS was developed more than 30 years ago, in the aftermath of a devastating wildfire in California • During 13 days in 1970, 16 lives were lost, 700 structures were destroyed, and more than one-half million acres burned • The overall cost and loss associated with these fires totaled $18 million per day

  9. The History of Incident Command System (Cont.) • Congress mandated that the U.S. Forest Service design a system that would "make a quantum jump in the capabilities of Southern California wildland fire protection agencies to effectively coordinate interagency action and to allocate suppression resources in dynamic, multiple-fire situations."

  10. The History of Incident Command System (Cont.) • The California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection; the Governor's Office of Emergency Services; the Los Angeles, Ventura, and Santa Barbara County Fire Departments; and the Los Angeles City Fire Department joined with the U.S. Forest Service to develop the system • FIRESCOPE (Firefighting Resources of California Organized for Potential Emergencies)

  11. FIRESCOPE ICS • Primarily a command-and-control system delineating job responsibilities and organizational structure for the purpose of managing day-to-day operations for all types of emergency incidents • Agencies had formally agreed upon - ICS common terminology and procedures and conducted limited field testing of ICS

  12. Variations on the Theme • In the early 1970s, the Phoenix Fire Department developed the Fire Ground Command System (FGC) • The concepts of FGC were similar to FIRESCOPE ICS but there were differences in terminology and in organizational structure

  13. Variations on the Theme (Cont.) • The FGC system was developed for structural firefighting and was designed for operations of 25 or fewer companies. • Recognizing the continuing challenges occurring in the fire service in applying a common approach to incident command, the National Fire Service Incident Management System (IMS) Consortium was created in 1990

  14. Variations on the Theme (Cont.) • Its purpose was to evaluate an approach to developing a single command system

  15. National Incident Management System • The NIMS provides a consistent, flexible, and adjustable national framework within which government and private entities at all levels can work together to manage domestic incidents, regardless of their cause, size, location, or complexity

  16. National Incident Management System (Cont.) • This flexibility applies across all phases of incident management: prevention, preparedness, response, recovery and mitigation • NIMS provides a set of standardized organizational structures • ICS, Multi-agency coordination systems and public-information systems

  17. National Incident Management System (Cont.) • NIMS provides a set of standardized organizational structures • Requirements for processes, procedures, and systems to improve interoperability among jurisdictions and disciplines in various areas • There are six components of the NIMS

  18. Types of Command Teams • Type 5: Local Village and Township Level • Consists of emergency-response providers from a small-to-medium-sized municipality or a group of smaller jurisdictions that are part of a mutual-aid agreement

  19. Types of Command Teams (Cont.) • Type 4: City, County, or Fire-District Level • Consists of emergency-response personnel from a larger and generally more-populated area, typically within a single jurisdiction; this level of IMT may be developed within a larger city or county departments, or fire districts

  20. Types of Command Teams (Cont.) • Type 3: State or Metropolitan-Area Level • Consists of personnel from different departments, organizations, or agencies within a state or metropolitan region who have trained together to function as a team

  21. Types of Command Teams (Cont.) • Type 2: National and State Level • Consists of federally or state-certified personnel; have less staffing and experience than a Type I IMT, and are typically used on smaller-scale national or state incidents. Type 2 IMTs are currently in existence, and operate through the U.S. Forest Service

  22. Types of Command Teams (Cont.) • Type 1: National and State Level • Consists of federally or state-certified personnel; are the most robust IMTs with the most experience; are fully equipped and self-contained • Type 1 IMTs are now in existence, and operate through the U.S. Forest Service

  23. Elements of an Effective Incident Management System • To be effective, an incident management system must be suitable for use regardless of the type of jurisdiction or agency involvement • These may include single jurisdiction/ single agency, single jurisdiction/multi-agency, and multi-jurisdictional/ multi-agency involvement

  24. Elements of an Effective Incident Management System (Cont.) • The organizational structure must be adaptable to any incident or event, applicable and acceptable to users throughout a community or region, readily adaptable to new technology, and capable of logical expansion from the initial response to the complexities of a major emergency

  25. Elements of an Effective Incident Management System (Cont.) • Common elements in organization, terminology, and procedures are necessary for maximum application of a system and use of existing qualifications and standards • They ensure the ability to move resources committed to the incident quickly and effectively with the least disruption to existing systems

  26. Business Management Techniques Applied to Incident Management • Tasks that business managers and leaders perform include planning, directing, organizing, coordinating, communicating, delegating, and evaluating • The responsibilities of the Incident Commander (IC) include gathering and evaluating information relative to preplanning and size-up, as well as development and communication of plans

  27. Business Management Techniques Applied to Incident Management (Cont.) • The IC must be involved with directing available resources to accomplish incident goals through operational and command responsibilities • To ensure proper incident management by coordination of overall operations of command, tactical operations, and support functions, a responsive organization must be developed

  28. Business Management Techniques Applied to Incident Management (Cont.) • The IC must be able to communicate effectively within the organization and assess feedback from an entire incident • The use of terms that are understood by all resources is critical to the IC’s ability to manage the incident

  29. Business Management Techniques Applied to Incident Management (Cont.) • Gathering and assigning resources functionally and geographically are also included in the IC's responsibilities • Overall effectiveness of the incident action plan (IAP) must be evaluated continually, based on the results of previous operational decisions

  30. Business Management Techniques Applied to Incident Management (Cont.) • Using these data, the IC modifies the action plan; although the IC may delegate functional authority, he or she always retains ultimate responsibility for the incident • If the IC chooses not to delegate authority for one or more functions, he or she must perform the functions as required by the incident

  31. Factors that Affect Incident Management • Incident management is carried out in a constantly changing environment • Although the situation may get better or worse, it seldom stays the same • The dynamics of a constantly changing environment present additional challenges to the IC

  32. Factors that Affect Incident Management (Cont.) • Effectiveness of the incident action plan depends on factors that may be difficult to assess or confirm

  33. Factors that Affect Incident Management (Cont.) • Danger increases due to the presence of hazardous contents within the involved buildings or vehicles • Dynamics of the incident may create difficulty in gathering accurate and current information, especially because of the limited time available at an incident scene

  34. Factors that Affect Incident Management (Cont.) • Additionally, emergency personnel reporting to the IC may not be able to judge the total picture. • Compromised responder safety, poor management of resources, or the inability to expand the command organization to meet the demands of the incident may have a negative effect on public perceptions about the department

  35. Factors that Affect Incident Management (Cont.) • Departments should be ready for any type of incident • Preparation to handle every incident, with available resources regardless of size or complexity, is needed

  36. Factors that Affect Incident Management (Cont.) • Emergency response personnel must consider the physical environment, command structure, and proper ICS procedures during preplanning • Incident outcomes may be forecast by thinking ahead about the situation while preplanning, as well as during an incident • At major incidents, a planning section is instituted to conduct this forecasting

  37. Factors that Affect Incident Management (Cont.) • The complexity of an incident complicates overall incident management • Command activities include strategic goal-setting, developing and implementing action plans, controlling/ coordinating incident operations, using all available resources, considering safety in decision-making, providing logistical support, and evaluating the action plan

  38. Factors that Affect Incident Management (Cont.) • IC also is responsible for managing or delegating medical treatment, liaison with other agencies, safety of personnel, and media requests • Multiple priorities of life safety, incident stabilization, and property conservation must be maintained, often with limited resources

  39. Factors that Affect Incident Management (Cont.) • Property conservation considerations include impacts on structures and the environment • Hazardous-materials incidents requiring major evacuation, wildland fires extending from one jurisdiction to another, and mass-casualty incidents with fire and hazardous materials concerns are examples of incidents with complex problems

  40. ICS Command Staff • Command comprises the incident commander (IC) and command staff • Command-staff positions are established to assign responsibility for key activities not specifically identified in the general staff functional elements • These positions may include the public information officer (PIO), safety officer (SO), and the liaison officer (LNO), in additional to various others as required and assigned by the IC

  41. Unified Command • Unified command (UC) • Multi-jurisdictional or multi-agency domestic incident management • It provides guidelines to enable agencies with different legal, geographic, and functional responsibilities to coordinate, plan, and interact effectively

  42. Unified Command (Cont.) • Unified command (UC) • Unified command overcomes much of the inefficiency and duplication of effort that can occur when agencies from different functional and geographic jurisdictions, or agencies at different levels of government, operate without a common system or organizational framework

  43. Unified Command (Cont.) • Unified command (UC) • The primary difference between the single command structure and the UC structure is that in a single command structure, the IC is solely responsible for establishing incident management objectives and strategies • In a UC structure, the individuals designated by their jurisdictional authorities jointly determine objectives, plans, and priorities, and they work together to execute them

  44. General Staff • General staff • Incident management personnel who represent the major functional elements of the ICS • Operations section chief, planning section chief, logistics section chief, and finance/administration section chief • Command staff and general staff must continually interact and share vital information and estimates of the current and future situation and develop recommended courses of action for consideration by the IC

  45. Area Command • Area command • Established either to oversee the management of multiple incidents that are being handled by separate ICS organizations or to oversee the management of a very large incident that involves multiple ICS organizations

  46. FIGURE 14.2Area Commander Responsibilities.

  47. Divisions and Groups • The use of divisions and groups in the command organization provides a standard system to divide the incident into smaller, more manageable elements • Divisions • Represent geographic responsibilities, such as Branch C (the rear of the facility)

  48. Divisions and Groups (Cont.) • Groups • Represent a functional (job) responsibility, such as the treatment group • Divisions and groups are under the control of a "supervisor" (e.g. medical group supervisor or transportation group supervisor)

  49. Branches • An organizational level having functional or geographical responsibility for major aspects of incident operations

  50. Branches (Cont.) • A branch is organizationally situated between the operations section chief and the division or groups in the operations section, and between the logistics section chief and the units in the logistics section