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Cryptography on Non-Trusted Machines. Stefan Dziembowski. Idea. Design cryptographic protocols that are secure even on the machines that are not fully trusted. How to construct secure digital systems?. MACHINE (PC, smartcard, etc.). very secure

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## Cryptography on Non-Trusted Machines

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**Cryptography on Non-Trusted Machines**StefanDziembowski**Idea**Design cryptographic protocols that are secure even on the machines that are not fully trusted.**How to construct secure digital systems?**MACHINE (PC, smartcard, etc.) very secure Security based on well-defined mathematical problems. implementation CRYPTO not secure!**The problem**MACHINE (PC, smartcard, etc.) easy to attack implementation hard to attack CRYPTO**Machines cannot be trusted!**1. Informationleakage MACHINE (PC, smartcard, etc.) 2. Maliciousmodifications**Relevant scenarios**MACHINES . . . PCs specialized hardware • malicious software • (viruses,trojan horses). side-channel attacks**Examplesofside-channelattacks**• timing attack — measuring how much time various computations take to perform, • power monitoring attack — measure the power consumption by the hardware during computation, • attacks based on leakedelectromagnetic radiation, • acoustic cryptanalysis — exploit sound produced during a computation, • differential fault analysis – introduce faults in a computation.**Typeof information that can belearnt**• individialbits(probingattacks) • more generalfunctions(e.g. in the Hammingattackthe adversarylearns the sum of secret bits) More on the practicalattacks: Side Channel Cryptanalysis Lounge**The standard view**anti-virus software, intrusion detection, tamper resistance,… MACHINE (PC, smartcard, etc.) practitioners Implementation is not our business! definitions, theorems, security reductions,.. CRYPTO theoreticians**Our model**(standard) black-box access cryptographicscheme additional accessto the internal data**Plan**• Private Circuits • stateless circuits • stateful circuits • Bounded-Retrieval Model • Introduction • Entity authentication • Forward-Secure Storage • Intrusion-Resilient Secret Sharing • Leakage-Resilient Stream Cipher • Open Problems**Private Circuits**This part of the lecture is based on [Ishai, Sahai, Wagner: Private Circuits: Securing Hardware against Probing Attacks. CRYPTO 2003] Motivation: Cryptographic hardware can be subject to “probing attacks”.**Probing attacks**The adversary can insert needles into the device and read-off the internal values We will model the device as a Boolean circuit.**Plan**• Private Circuits • stateless circuits • stateful circuits • Bounded-Retrieval Model • Entity authentication • Forward-Secure Storage • Intrusion-Resilient Secret Sharing • Leakage-Resilient Stream Cipher • Open Problems**Randomized Boolean circuits**output gates b1 b2 b3 b4 b5 conjunciton gates and and and rnd and neg and neg and “wires” depth random bit gates neg and and and rnd and and negation gates rnd neg input gates a0 a1 a2 a3 a4 a5 a6 a7 size: number of gates**A t-limited adversary**Assumption:In each round the adversary can read-off up to twires circuit doesn’t need to be computationally-bounded**An idea**for simplicity assume that it is deterministic circuit C’ = T(C) transformation T: circuit C C andC’ should compute the same function. A circuit T(C) should be as secure as C even if the adversary can read-off t wires.**Problem**We want to require that “no adversary can get any information about the input a”. C input a Problem: the adversary can always read a directly**Solution**output b the adversary cannot read the wires from Iand O I and O should not depend on C output decoder O circuit C input encoder I input a**The model**Suppose the adversary reads-off some t wires C output xof the adversary input a Theadversary outputs some value x.**The security definition**For every C’ and a for every adversary that attacks C’ there exists a simulator that has no access to C’ and the distribution of the output is the same x x simulator C’ I a**The construction**We are now going to construct (T,I,O) We first present the main idea (that contains some errors) Then we repair it. Main tool: secret sharing**m-out-of-nsecret sharing**dealer’s secret S (n= 5) S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 • Every set of at least mplayers can reconstructS. • Any set of less than mplayers has no information aboutS.**Secret sharing – more generaly**Every secret sharing protocol consists of • a sharing procedure, • a reconstruction procedure, and • a security condition. matching**n-out-of-nsecret sharing**This lecture: n-out-of-nsecret sharing Example Suppose S {0,1}. The dealer selects uniformly at random S1,...,Sn{0,1} such that S1+ ...+Sn= S mod 2.**Idea**Encode every bit of the input using a m-out-of-m secret sharingfor m = t + 1 example: t = 2 random such that b1+b2+b3 = b mod 2 random such that c1+c2+c3 = c mod 2 random such that a1+a2+a3 = a mod 2 input encoder I a b c decoding - trivial**The transformation**and and T neg neg and and and and a b c**How to handle negation?**Just negate the first bit... example: t = 4 not a neg neg a**How to handle multiplication?**? c and and a b**How to handle multiplication?**Observation:**An idea**sharing of a sharing of b Problem: If the adversary can see that ci= 1 then she knows that b = 1 Idea: add randomization...**An improved idea**Randomlyflip some entries. We do itsymmetricaly.**xor**random**Observation**and (a1,a2,a3) and (b1,b2,b3) may not be “independent”. Example: and and a a**Example**t = 2 Suppose that the adversary can observe thata3a1 = 1and a3a2=1. Then she knows that a1 = a2 = a3 = 1. So she knows that a1 + a2 + a3 = 1 mod 2. What is the reason? some wires give information about two ai’s**A solution**Set m := 2t + 1. In other words: Instead of (t+1)-out-of-(t+1) secret sharing use (2t+1)-out-of-(2t+1) secret sharing**Example: t = 2, m = 5**xor xor**The blow-up**The sizeof the circuitisincreasedbyfactor O(t2) The depthof the circuitisincreasedbyfactor O(log d)**Plan**• Private Circuits • stateless circuits • stateful circuits • Bounded-Retrieval Model • Entity authentication • Forward-Secure Storage • Intrusion-Resilient Secret Sharing • Leakage-Resilient Stream Cipher • Open Problems**Stateful circuits**Usually a cryptographic device contains a “state”. Example: the adversary may: observe the input-output behaviour insert some wires inside the device ciphertext cipher key K plaintext How to model it?**Stateful circuits**Stateful circuits have additional gates called “memory cells” mem • Time is divided in rounds. • Ineach round the mem gate outputs its input from the previous round • Hence they can be used to store some state mem**Notation**circuit C with initial state (s0,s1,...,sn): C[s0,s1,...,sn] s0 s1 sn . . .**A new definition of a t-limited adversary**Time is divided into rounds. In the ithround the adversary: chooses a set of twires. invokes Con some input ai. learns the values on the wires chosen by him, and the output biof the circuit. b1 b2 b3 b4 b5 circuit C output xof the adversary a3 a4 a5 a1 a2**What about the statefull circuits?**The initial state s may also need to be “transformed” C’[s’] transformation T: C[s] Note: encoding the input and decoding it does not need to be protected.**How to define security**For every adversary there exists a simulator such that the outputs are distributed identically. T C’[s’] C[s] cannot read the internal wires adversary simulator x x**The construction (outline)**We use the encoding as in the previous construction. b γ2= new encoding of s γ3= new encoding of s at the end of each round C’ a γ1= encoding of s encode state s**A subsequent paper**Y. Ishai, M. Prabhakaran, A. Sahai, and D. Wagner. Private Circuits II: Keeping Secrets in Tamperable Circuits. EUROCRYPT 2006 Theycosider the activeattacks, i.e. the adversary can modify the circuit.**Plan**• Private Circuits • stateless circuits • stateful circuits • Bounded-Retrieval Model • Entity authentication • Forward-Secure Storage • Intrusion-Resilient Secret Sharing • Leakage-Resilient Stream Cipher • Open Problems**installs a virus**retrieves some data The problem Computers can be infected by malware! The virus can: • take control over the machine, • steal some secrets stored on the machine. Can we run any crypto on such machines?**Is there any remedy?**If the virus can download all the data stored on the machine then the situation looks hopeless (because he can “clone” the machine). Idea: Assume that he cannot do it!

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