stocks n.
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  1. Stocks

  2. Stock • Fond- French work for stock, meaning bottom, ground, base. • Result of extracting flavors from various food items using liquid as a base. • A flavored liquid • A good stock is the key to a great soup, sauce or braised dish

  3. Types of Stock • White stock • Raw bones and vegetables simmered in water with seasonings • Brown stock • Bones and vegetables that have first been browned then simmered in water with seasonings • Fish stock or fumet • Fish bones or crustacean shells cooked slowly with vegetables and seasonings in water • Court bouillon • Vegetables and seasonings simmered in water with an acidic liquid

  4. Ingredients in Stock • Water • Bones • Beef, veal, chicken, fish • Mirepoix • Mixture of 50% onions, 25% carrots and 25% celery • Seasonings • peppercorns, bay leaves, thyme, parsley stems and, optionally, garlic • Do not add salt

  5. Mirepoix

  6. Principles of Stock Making • Start the stock in cold water • Simmer the stock gently • Skim the stock frequently • Strain the stock carefully • Cool the stock quickly • Store stock properly • Degrease the stock- Depouillage

  7. White Stock • Neutral stock made from beef, veal or chicken bones • Blanching bones • Wash and cut up bones, place them in a stockpot and cover with cold water • Bring the water to a boil over high heat • As soon as water comes to a boil, skim the rising impurities; drain the water from the bones and discard • Refill the pot with cold water and proceed with the stock recipe

  8. Brown Stock • Made from chicken, veal, beef or game bones • Caramelizing • Do not blanch the bones • Place the cut up bones in a roasting pan one layer deep; it is better to roast several pans of bones than to overfill one pan • Roast the bones for approximately 1 hour in a hot oven, 375°F; stirring occasionally, brown the bones thoroughly, but do not allow them to burn • Transfer the roasted bones from the pan to the stockpot

  9. Caramelizing the Bones

  10. Brown Stock (cont.) • Deglazing the pan • Place the pan on the stove top over medium heat; add enough water to cover the bottom of the pan approximately ½ inch deep • Stir and scrape the pan bottom to dissolve and remove all the caramelized materials while the water heats • Pour the deglazing liquid over the bones in the stock pot

  11. Deglazing the Pan

  12. Brown Stock (cont.) • Caramelizing mirepoix • Add a little of the reserved fat from the roasted bones to the roasting pan after it has been deglazed • Sauté the mirepoix, browning the vegetables well and evenly without burning them • Add caramelized mirepoix to stockpot

  13. Caramelizing Mirepoix

  14. Fish Stock and Fumet • Made with the bones and heads of fish and crustacean shells • Oily fish are not generally used • Bones are not blanched, due to loss of flavor • Fumets differ from stock because they are strongly flavored and contain an acidic ingredient such as white wine or lemon juice • Require less time than other stocks; 35 to 40 minutes is usually sufficient to extract full flavor

  15. Vegetable Stock • Should be clear and light colored • Contains no gelatin and has little body • May be used as a substitute for meat stocks in vegetarian dishes • Strongly flavored vegetables from the cruciferous family or those that are bitter should be avoided • Potatoes and other starchy vegetables will cloud the stock and should be avoided

  16. Commercial Bases • Powder or paste flavoring added to water, used to replace stock • Even the best base is a poor substitute for a well-made stock • Bases vary greatly in quality and price • Sodium (salt) is the main ingredient in many bases

  17. Court Bouillon • Commonly used to poach fish and shellfish • A flavored liquid, usually water and wine or vinegar, in which vegetables and seasonings have been simmered to impart their flavors and aromas • Not actually stock, but prepared in the same manner

  18. Glaze • A dramatically reduced stock • 1 gallon of stock produces 1 to 2 cups of glaze • Glace de viande is made from brown stock • Glace de volaille is made from white stock