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A grammar rule

A grammar rule

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A grammar rule

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  1. A grammar rule SVE.GRAM CL.IMP ---------------<& PHR.CAT> :=: 'CL, <& TYPE> :=: 'IMP, <* WORD.CAT> = 'VERB, <& VERB WORD.CAT> :=: 'VERB, <* INFF> = 'IMP, <& VERB INFF> :=: <* INFF>, <& REG V1.LEM> :=: <* LEM>, <& VERB DIAT> :=: <* DIAT>, ADVANCE, (ADVERBIALS1// CONTINUE), DO(<& REG V1.LEM :VERBCOMP>), DO(<& VERB LEX :VERBACTION>), ADVANCE, (ADVERBIALS2, ADVANCE// CONTINUE), (END.OF.SENT, STORE/ CL_COORD); Inactive filter WORD.CAT or PHR.CAT; Anna Sågvall Hein, GSLT, January 2003

  2. Transfer rules • copy feature • delete feature • transfer feature • define feature Anna Sågvall Hein, GSLT, January 2003

  3. Copy feature LABEL TYPE SOURCE <* TYPE> = ?TYPE TARGET <* TYPE> = ?TYPE TRANSFER Anna Sågvall Hein, GSLT, January 2003

  4. Delete feature LABEL REG SOURCE <* REG> = ANY TARGET <*> = <*> TRANSFER Anna Sågvall Hein, GSLT, January 2003

  5. Transfer feature LABEL OBJ.DIR SOURCE <* OBJ.DIR> = ?OBJ.DIR1 TARGET <* OBJ.DIR> = ?OBJ.DIR2 TRANSFER ?OBJ.DIR1 <=> ?OBJ.DIR2 Anna Sågvall Hein, GSLT, January 2003

  6. Define feature LABEL växellåda SOURCE <* word.cat> = noun <* lex> = växellåda.nn.1 TARGET <* word.cat> = noun <* lex> = gearbox.nn.1 TRANSFER Anna Sågvall Hein, GSLT, January 2003

  7. A contextual lexical rule %% i universalstativ  on universal stand LABEL i_universalstativ SOURCE <* phr.cat> = pp <* prep lex> = i.pp.1 <* prep word.cat> = prep <* pobj> = ?x1 <* pobj df head lex> = universalstativ.nn.1 TARGET <* phr.cat> = pp <* prep lex> = on.pp.1 <* prep word.cat> = prep <* pobj> = ?x2 TRANSFER ?x1  ?x2 Anna Sågvall Hein, GSLT, January 2003

  8. A generation rule LABEL CL.IMP X1 ---> X2 X3 X4 : <X1 PHR.CAT> = CL <X1 VERB> = <X2> <X1 TYPE> = IMP <X1 OBJ.DIR> = <X3> <X1 SEP> = <X4> Anna Sågvall Hein, GSLT, January 2003

  9. A trace Anna Sågvall Hein, GSLT, January 2003

  10. Language modules in the new organisation of MULTRA • dictionary in a database with different views • excl. contextually defined lexical transfer rules • Swedish grammar (excl. morfologi) • transfer grammar • incl. contextually defined lexical transfer rules • generation grammar (excl. morphology) • temporary generation dictionary (lexemes) Anna Sågvall Hein, GSLT, January 2003

  11. The lexical database • sv-en_LinkLexicon • en_Inflections • en_LemmaLexicon • en_LexemeLexicon • en_Lexicon • en_StemLexicon • sv_Inflections • sv_LemmaLexicon • sv_LexemeLexicon • sv_Lexicon • sv_StemLexicon Anna Sågvall Hein, GSLT, January 2003

  12. Scaling up the dictionary Swedish lemmas English lemmas befor 369 184 now 20.883 6.562 Anna Sågvall Hein, GSLT, January 2003

  13. Scaling up the Swedish-English lexeme dictionary • word alignment with UWA • lemmatising the Swedish one-word-units in the word links • heuristic lemmatisation of the English counterparts • basic cleaning • professionell revision • genereration of lexemes Anna Sågvall Hein, GSLT, January 2003

  14. The MATS process in 10 steps • extracting text sentences from SGML-dokuments • tokenisation • extracting lemmas (SL+TL), lexemes (SL + TL), linguistic codes and valency rules form the db. • expansion av lemma-, lexeme- och valency codes • mosy-code  av-strukture • parsing Anna Sågvall Hein, GSLT, January 2003

  15. Continuation (steps 7-11) transfer + syntactisk generation av-strukture  mosy-code dictionary look-up in db finish (capital letter etc.) recreate SGML Anna Sågvall Hein, GSLT, January 2003

  16. Lexicalistic translation • Identify (lexical) translation units in the source sentence • Translate each unit separately (considering the context) • Order the result in agreement with a model of the target language (formulation due to Lars Ahrenberg; see further the KOMA project) See also Beaven, L. John, Shake-and-Bake Machine Translation. Coling –92, Nantes, 23-28 Aout 1992. Anna Sågvall Hein, GSLT, January 2003

  17. Lexicalistic systems? • Systran? • Multra? • Scots Anna Sågvall Hein, GSLT, January 2003

  18. Interlingua translation • See SN Anna Sågvall Hein, GSLT, January 2003

  19. Assignment 2: Hable Con Ella (babelfish) • Translate the text from English to one of your favourite languages using Babelfish • Make a general quality assessment of the translation. • Specify what transfer rules were applied • Formulate them in the Multra formalism • Specify the translation errors that were made and discuss how they may be handled. Anna Sågvall Hein, GSLT, January 2003