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Reinventing Project Management

Reinventing Project Management

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Reinventing Project Management

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  1. Reinventing Project Management Part 1 slides

  2. The Increasing Share of Projects Projects Operations Time Industries, Companies, Society 1800s Agricultural society 1900s Industrial society 2000s Information society

  3. The motivation The assumption: Different projects are managed in different ways. The literature and the discipline assume: “a project is a project is a project.” There is no accepted framework The need: A framework to distinguish among projects Practical guidelines on how to manage projects in different ways

  4. The Questions How to Distinguish Among Projects – Dimensions? How to Classify Projects on Each Dimension? How to Manage Different Project Types? Is There More than One Way?

  5. What Impacts Project Type? Environment Project UCP NTCP Product Task Technology Complexity Novelty Pace

  6. The UCP Model

  7. Four Dimensions for Distinction Among Project Types Novelty – How new is the product to customers and users Derivative, Platform, Breakthrough Technology – How much new technology is used Low-tech, Medium-tech, High-tech, Super High-tech Complexity – How complex is the system and its subsystems Assembly, System, Array Pace – How Critical is the Time frame Regular, Fast/Competitive, Time-Critical, Blitz Each Type Has a Unique Impact on Project Management

  8. The Project Diamond - Assessing a Project’s Risk/Benefit and Selecting the Right Management Approach

  9. Technology Super-High Tech High-Tech Medium-Tech Low-Tech Automatic Bag –Handling System Novelty Array System Assembly Complexity Derivative Platform Breakthrough Regular Fast/ Competitive Time-Critical Blitz Airport Construction Project Pace Denver International Airport Project

  10. Project Success Efficiency Impact on Customer Impact on Team Business & Direct Success Preparing for Future • Meeting schedule • Meeting budget • Changes • Yield • Other efficiencies • Meeting requirements and specifications • Benefit to customer • Extent of use • Customer satisfaction & loyalty • Brand name recognition • Sales • Profits • Market share • ROI, ROE • Cash flow • Service quality • Cycle-time • Organizational measures • Regulations approval • New technology • New market • New product line • New core competencies • New organizational capabilities • Team satisfaction • Team morale • Skill development • Team member growth • Team members’ retention • No burnout Specific Success Measures

  11. Success Dimensions Preparing for Future Business & Direct Success Impact on Team Impact on Customer Efficiency Project Success Timeframe Short Medium Long Timeframes of Success Dimensions

  12. Importance Preparing for Future Business & Direct success Impact on Customer & Team Efficiency Uncertainty Low Medium High Relative Importance of Success Dimensions is Project- Dependent

  13. Technology Super-High Tech High-Tech Medium-Tech Low-Tech Novelty Array System Assembly Complexity Derivative Platform Breakthrough Regular Fast/ Competitive Time-Critical Blitz Pace The NTCP Framework

  14. The NTCP Diamond

  15. Definition Planning Execution Termination Revise Plans Revise Definition Classical Project Phases Modified to an Adaptive Iterative Approach

  16. From traditional to adaptive project management

  17. Entire Adaptive Iterative Approach Freeze Requirements Freeze Design Requirements Planning Specs Design, Build, Test Complete Revise Design Revise Plans Revise Requirements Adaptive Approach Traditional PM

  18. Importance Preparing for Future Business & Direct success Impact on Customer & Team Efficiency Project Completion Time Relative Importance of Success Dimensions - A Matter of Time

  19. Critical Success Factors Product Development Projects Generic Projects • Project Mission • Top Management Support • Project Planning • Project Control • Client Consultation • Skills • Personnel Management • Project Communication • Client Acceptance • Trouble Shooting • Clear and Early Product Definition • Defined Product Strategy • Early Top Management Involvement • High Quality Process • Adequate Resources • Integrated Planning • Empowered and Communicating Team • Voice of the Customer

  20. Technology Super-High Tech High-Tech Medium-Tech Low-Tech Novelty Array System Assembly Complexity Derivative Platform Breakthrough Regular Fast/ Competitive Time-Critical Blitz Required style Dr = (Pl, HT, Sy, FC) Da = (Pl, MT, As, FC) Actual style Pace The FCS Project

  21. Technology Later design freeze More design cycles Less market data Later requirement freeze Complexity Novelty Complex organization Formality Autonomy Pace The Impact of the NTCP Dimensions on Project Management

  22. Benefits and risks of high NTCP levels

  23. Technology Super-High Tech High-Tech Medium-Tech Low-Tech Novelty Array System Assembly Complexity Derivative Platform Breakthrough Regular Fast/ Competitive Time-Critical Blitz D = (Pl, MT, Ar, FC) Pace The World Trade Center Project

  24. Reinventing Project Management Part 2 slides

  25. Technology Super-High Tech High-Tech Medium-Tech Low-Tech Novelty Array System Assembly Complexity Derivative Platform Breakthrough Regular Fast/ Competitive Time-Critical Blitz D = (Pl, HT, Sy, -) Pace The “Toy Story” Project

  26. Definitions and examples of project novelty

  27. Technology Super-High Tech High-Tech Medium-Tech Low-Tech Novelty Array System Assembly Complexity Derivative Platform Breakthrough Regular Fast/ Competitive Time-Critical Blitz Required style Dr = (Br, HT, Sy, -) Da = (Pl, HT, Sy, -) Actual style Pace The Segway Project

  28. Product novelty and project success: Expectations

  29. Impact of product novelty levels on project management

  30. Technology Super-High Tech High-Tech Medium-Tech Low-Tech Novelty Array System Assembly Complexity Derivative Platform Breakthrough Regular Fast/ Competitive Time-Critical Blitz Required style Dr = (Pl, HT, Sy, -) Da = (De, MT, Sy, -) Actual style Pace Financial Middleware Software Project

  31. Technology Super-High Tech High-Tech Medium-Tech Low-Tech Automatic Bag –Handling System Airport Construction Project Novelty Array System Assembly Complexity Derivative Platform Breakthrough Regular Fast/ Competitive Time-Critical Blitz Pace Denver International Airport Project

  32. Project types based on levels of technological uncertainty

  33. Project characteristics and technological uncertainty levels

  34. Resources Legend: A- Low-Tech B- Medium-Tech C- High-Tech D- Super High-Tech B: 1-2 – Number of design cycles n – No. of cycles required to choose the final technologies D C B Planned Resources D: n+3 A C: 2-3 B: 1-2 A: 1 Time Project Initiation Project Scheduled Completion Possible time ranges for design freeze Risk area Possible Time Ranges for Design Freeze, Number of Design Cycles, and Risk Areas for Project Outcomes

  35. Low- and medium-tech versus high- and super-high-techprojects

  36. Technology Super-High Tech High-Tech Medium-Tech Low-Tech Novelty Array System Assembly Complexity Derivative Platform Breakthrough Regular Fast/ Competitive Time-Critical Blitz D = (Pl, SHT, Sy, -) Pace SR-71 Blackbird Project

  37. Technology Super-High Tech High-Tech Medium-Tech Low-Tech Novelty Array System Assembly Complexity Derivative Platform Breakthrough Regular Fast/ Competitive Time-Critical Blitz D = (Br, SHT, Ar, FC) Pace Apollo Program

  38. Space Shuttle

  39. The Space Shuttle Program 1969 Initial proposal - to go to Mars in 1980s Encountered low priorities, Were asked to look for low-cost alternatives 1972 (August) Program approved; Shuttle only Based on known technologies -“success oriented” 1972 (November) Design freeze- configuration and technologies 1978 First flight scheduled 1981 Actual first flight - 60% budget overrun 1982 System declared operational 1986 Challenger accident 2003 Columbia accident

  40. Space Shuttle ProgramInitial Uncertainties • First two-medium space vehicle • First reusable space vehicle • Liquid fuel engines and an external tank • Huge 75 Ton glider • 5000 Miles glide from reentry to landing • First orbital flight with a live crew • No crew escape system

  41. Technology Super-High Tech High-Tech Medium-Tech Low-Tech Novelty Array System Assembly Complexity Derivative Platform Breakthrough Regular Fast/ Competitive Time-Critical Blitz Dr = (Br, SHT, Sy, Re) Da = (Pl, HT, Sy, FC) Required style Actual style Pace The Space Shuttle Program

  42. Space ShuttleProject Management Style Actual Style Alternative Style Success oriented Look for trouble Off-the-shelf items Alternative technologies Early configuration and Late freeze; Build a design freeze small-scale prototype Low flexibility High flexibility Early operational Extended development Limited communication Intensive communication Type C Type D High-Tech Super High-Tech

  43. Technology Super-High Tech High-Tech Medium-Tech Low-Tech Novelty Array System Assembly Complexity Derivative Platform Breakthrough Regular Fast/ Competitive Time-Critical Blitz D = (Pl, HT, Sy, -) Pace The Ford 2000 Project

  44. The three levels of project complexity

  45. Technology Super-High Tech High-Tech Medium-Tech Low-Tech Novelty Array System Assembly Complexity Derivative Platform Breakthrough Regular Fast/ Competitive Time-Critical Blitz Required style Dr = (Pl, MT, Ar, -) Da = (Pl, MT, Sy, -) Actual style Pace The Chunnel Project

  46. Technology Super-High Tech High-Tech Medium-Tech Low-Tech Novelty Array System Assembly Complexity Derivative Platform Breakthrough Regular Fast/ Competitive Time-Critical Blitz D = (Pl, HT, Sy, FC) Pace The Harmony Project

  47. Technology Super-High Tech High-Tech Medium-Tech Low-Tech Novelty Array System Assembly Complexity Derivative Platform Breakthrough Regular Fast/ Competitive Time-Critical Blitz Required style Dr = (Br, HT, Sy, TC) Da = (Pl, MT, As, TC) Actual style Pace Mars Climate OrbiterProject

  48. Four levels of pace

  49. Technology Super-High Tech High-Tech Medium-Tech Low-Tech Novelty Array System Assembly Complexity Derivative Platform Breakthrough Regular Fast/ Competitive Time-Critical Blitz Dr = (Pl, MT, Sy, TC) Da = (Pl, MT, Sy, Bl) Required style Actual style Pace The Y2K Case Project

  50. Reinventing Project Management Part 3 slides