The Cognitive Dog:Savant or Slacker - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

the cognitive dog savant or slacker n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
The Cognitive Dog:Savant or Slacker PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
The Cognitive Dog:Savant or Slacker

play fullscreen
1 / 99
Download Presentation
The Cognitive Dog:Savant or Slacker
111 Views
nen
Download Presentation

The Cognitive Dog:Savant or Slacker

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. The Cognitive Dog:Savant or Slacker • Class 14: Observational Learning

  2. Agenda • Final paper • Next week • Carolyn on learning theory • Bruce on observational learning theory

  3. The brain trust • Lupe & Willow

  4. The brain trust • Maggie & Cooper

  5. The brain trust • Rosito & Pedro

  6. The Cognitive DogClass 13 • ABC’S OF LEARNING THEORY • How Dogs Learn – The Basics

  7. How Dogs Learn • CLASSICAL CONDITIONING • Also known as Pavlovian, Associative and Respondent • OPERANT CONDITIONING • What we know as “training”

  8. How Dogs Learn • CLASSICAL CONDITIONING • Pavlov’s Dogs • Relates to reflexes not to voluntary behaviors • Happening all the time • Clicker and food is a classical association • Teaching a cue is a classical association

  9. How Dogs Learn • OPERANT CONDITIONING • Definition (from How Dog’s Learn Burch & Bailey, 1999): • “The part of science of behavior • that explains the functional relationship • between environmental events and • behavior. It is a key component in • explaining how all organisms • (including dogs) learn.” In simple • terms what happens in the environment • will affect what a dog will do in the future. • If a dog receives a cookie for sitting he will • be more likely to sit again. If a bee stings a • dog when he sits he is less likely to sit.

  10. How Dogs Learn • OPERANT CONDITIONING • REINFORCEMENT: • Strengthens behaviors • . • PUNISHMENT: • Weakens behaviors

  11. How Dogs Learn • OPERANT CONDITIONING • REINFORCEMENT: • Strengthens behaviors • Is anything that will increase the likelihood of a behavior to happen in the future • To be effective it should closely follow the behavior so an association is made

  12. How Dogs Learn • OPERANT CONDITIONING • PUNISHMENT: • Weakens behaviors • Punishment decreases the likelihood of a behavior to be repeated in the future • To be effective it should closely follow the behavior • Has potential fallout; fear, anxiety

  13. How Dogs Learn • REINFORCEMENT in dog trainingStrengthens behaviors • Positive Reinforcement • Add good • As perceived by the dog • Negative Reinforcement • Remove bad • As perceived by the dog

  14. How Dogs Learn • REINFORCEMENT in dog training • Positive Reinforcement • Add good - As perceived • by the dog • Examples: Food, toys, exercise, • play & petting (not all dogs)

  15. How Dogs Learn • REINFORCEMENT in dog training • Negative Reinforcement • Remove bad, As perceived • by the dog • Examples: Stop pulling on a leash, stop electronic collar; spray or shock, stop ear pinch

  16. How Dogs Learn • REINFORCEMENT in dog training • Positive Reinforcement • Primary Reinforcer • Secondary Reinforcer • Negative Reinforcement • Primary Reinforcer • Secondary Reinforcer

  17. How Dogs Learn • REINFORCEMENT in dog training • Positive & Negative Reinforcement • Primary • An Unconditioned Reinforcer. A primary reinforcer will increase the likelihood that a behavior will be repeated in the future when presented immediately following a behavior. Related to basic needs, food, drink, some touch. • Secondary • A Conditioned Reinforcer. It is something that by itself does not mean anything to the dog. Butwhen paired with a primary reinforcer the secondary will then strengthen behaviors. For dogs these can include, praise, clicker, petting, verbal reprimand or sound. This pairing is classical conditioning. • REINFORCEMENT INCREASES BEHAVIOR

  18. How Dogs Learn • Punishment in dog training: • Punishment decreases behavior • Positive Punishment • add something bad • Negative Punishment • take away something good • The good or bad must be the dogs perception

  19. How Dogs Learn • Punishment in dog training: • Positive Punishment • Add something thing bad • Examples: electric shock, leash correction, spray bottle or collar, throwing objects, hitting

  20. How Dogs Learn • Punishment in dog training: • Negative Punishment • Remove something good • Examples: Time out in crate = removes you or the fun, Take dog away from fun event such as agility run for broken stay

  21. How Dogs Learn • Punishment in dog training: • Positive Punishment • Primary Punisher • Secondary Punisher • Negative Punishment • Primary Punisher • Secondary Punisher

  22. How Dogs Learn • Punishment in dog training: • Positive & Negative Punishment • Primary • An Unconditioned Punisher. The dog does not need prior experience for it to be perceived as a punisher. Extreme heat or cold, shock, pinch, citronella spray, hitting are all examples of primary • Secondary • A Conditioned Punisher. It is something that by itself does not mean anything to the dog. Butwhen paired with a primary punisher the secondary will then weaken behaviors. Verbal or sound. This pairing is classical conditioning. • PUNISHMENT DECREASES BEHAVIOR • But there is possible increased anxiety and fallout

  23. How Dogs Learn • OPERANT CONDITIONING • ReinforcementPunishment • PositivePrimary: Food Shock Secondary: Click Warning Sound • Negative Primary: Remove Shock Remove Food • Secondary: Remove Verbal Remove Verbal

  24. How Dogs Learn • finally…The ABC's of learning • A= Antecedent or A Signal (cue) • B= Behavior (action) • C= Consequence (payoff) • Good Consequence = Reinforcement • Bad Consequence = Punishment

  25. How Dogs Learn • The ABC's of learning • A= Antecedent or A Signal • Cues • Verbal: words, sounds • Visual: hand, body, motion • Environmental: agility obstacles • Think about the dog youhave when making choices for cues; visual or sound stimulation stronger?

  26. How Dogs Learn • The ABC's of learning • B= Behavior • Action or duration of non action • Voluntary action: sit, down, lift paw • Non action: stay in position • Behaviors that are offered by the animal appear to be learned more quickly vs. guiding or continuous luring

  27. How Dogs Learn • The ABC's of learning • C= Consequence • Payoff • Good Consequence = Reinforcement, R+ • Increases likelihood of behavior • Bad Consequence = Punishment • Decreases likelihood of behavior

  28. How Dogs Learn • Once learned, Good Consequences = • Behaviors Happen: • Human Example: • A = Antecedent (cue): Alarm goes off, ugh… • B = Behavior: Get up and go to work • C = Consequence: Paycheck, yahoo! • Canine Example: A = Antecedent (cue): Verbal “Sit” • B = Behavior: Dog puts butt on the floor • C = Consequence: Dog gets to go out to play!

  29. How Dogs Learn • “Natural” Progression of A-B-C • Begging: • A - Owner eating at table • B - Dog Begs • C - Owner gives a piece of food • Think the begging will be repeated?!

  30. How Dogs Learn • Training Steps: A new alphabet • B-C-A • Maximizes learning & the quality of the final behavior performance • B = Behavior: Get it • C = Consequence: Give it • A = Antecedent or A Signal:Add after behavior is strong, insert before behavior

  31. How Dogs Learn • Training Steps • B = Behavior: • Get the dog to perform the desired behavior • Capture: R+ dog doing behavior • Shape: R+ parts of the behavior working closer to the end behavior • Lure: Use of food or toy as a guide to where you want the dog then R+

  32. How Dogs Learn • Training Steps • C = Consequence: • R+ • When the dog does the behavior- Capturing • When the dog does part of the behavior- Shaping • As the dog follows the food into position or partial position - Luring

  33. How Dogs Learn • Training Steps • A = Antecedent or Cue: • Add after the dog becomes good at the behavior, cue will pair with the end behavior performance (usually better than beginning) • Cue is presented just before the dog does the behavior = Classical Conditioning • R+ as usual

  34. How Dogs Learn • EXAMPLE OF • CAPTURING – SHAPING – LURING • Down – • Capture: Sit in a small quiet room R+ as dog lies down on his own • Shape: R+ as dog lowers head, then bends elbows, then lowers back end etc. • Lure: Guide dog into position with food or toy desired by the dog, R+ in position

  35. How Dogs Learn • BUT KEEP IN MIND…

  36. How Dogs Learn • Emotions & Motivation impact Learning • Take all we have studied so far into consideration… • Emotions • Hardwiring - Motivation • Past Experiences • Lack of Experiences • Keep in mind all of this and the immediate environment have a big influence on a learners ability to learn

  37. How Dogs Learn • THE LEARNERS …that have taught us….

  38. Learning by observation

  39. Things to note... • The other animal is just doing their thing, their role as “demonstrator/teacher” is purely a side-effect. • Think of wolf pups following mom & dad • Their presence/interaction/response provides, in effect, a focus of attention that simplifies the learning problem for the observer. • Associative learning is probably sufficient given this scaffolding

  40. Local enhancement: “I think I’ll hang out with Harry. Hmmm, what’s that” Stimulus enhancement: “Hey what’s Harry fooling with. That looks tasty” Observational Conditioning: “Yikes, what is Harry reacting to, I guess I should be scared too” Three simple types of social learning • Just because its simple, doesn’t make it any less useful

  41. Uncommon forms of observational learning Goal Emulation Imitation Emery, N. and N. Clayton (2005). Animal Cognition. The Behavior of Animals: mechanisms, function and evolution. J. Bolhuis and L. Giraldeau. London, Blackwell Publishing.

  42. Goal Emulation... b) Achieve same goal but use a different action a) Observe another animal achieve a goal by performing a specific action The difference in this case is that the person and the monkey orient the rake differently Emery, N. and N. Clayton (2005). Animal Cognition. The Behavior of Animals: mechanisms, function and evolution. J. Bolhuis and L. Giraldeau. London, Blackwell Publishing.

  43. Imitation... b) Achieve same goal by performing the same specific & novel sequence of actions a) Observe another animal achieve a goal by performing a specific & novel sequence of actions This type of observational learning seems to occur rarely in other species than humans Emery, N. and N. Clayton (2005). Animal Cognition. The Behavior of Animals: mechanisms, function and evolution. J. Bolhuis and L. Giraldeau. London, Blackwell Publishing.

  44. Why? • Why are goal emulation and imitation apparently so rare in species other than humans and maybe other apes... • May require a type of cognitive machinery (little or big) not found in other species... • The cost/benefit may low (i.e., the common forms work well enough given built-in behavioral structure & context) • Just haven’t looked hard enough...

  45. What do our slacker friends do? • Common forms of observational learning... • Local enhancement • Stimulus enhancement • Observational conditioning • Less common forms • Goal emulation (???)

  46. Adler & Adler

  47. Big idea... • Test for evidence of observational learning in Miniature Dachshund pups of varying ages... • Had some pups watch another pup retrieve ‘inaccessible’ food by pulling on a string that was attached to the food • Compared time it took naive pups to retrieve food by pulling on string with the time it took pups who had experience watching other pups do it.

  48. More details... • 4 litters of doxie pups, 1 from each litter chosen as demonstrator for rest of littermates • 3 days of acclimatization (???) • 5 trials per day in which demonstrator learned how to retrieve food, and observers watched • After 15 trials, observers were given chance to perform task

  49. Results from Adler

  50. Results from Adler... • The observers generally retrieved the food substantially faster on the first three trials than their demonstrator • Particularly strong effect on 60 and 38 day-old litters • Evidence that they benefited from watching demonstrator