Pesticide Applicator Training General Pest Category – 10A - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Pesticide Applicator Training General Pest Category – 10A

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  1. Pesticide Applicator Training General Pest Category – 10A David J. Shetlar, Ph.D. The “BugDoc” The Ohio State University, OARDC & OSU Extension Columbus, OH © November, 2004, D.J. Shetlar, all rights reserved

  2. General Pest Control (ODA Category 10A) Areas covered by exam: • Pest Identification • Biology of Major Pest Groups • Control Approaches • Pesticide Types, Modes of Action, & Application Techniques • Reading & Understanding Label Instructions

  3. Groups Included in “General Pest” • Cockroaches • Pantry Pests (grain & flour pests) • Nuisance Pests (ants, bees, wasps, flies) • Fiber & Paper Pests (carpet beetles, clothes moths, silverfish, booklice) • Structural (carpenter ants & bees - not termites) • Occasional Invaders (spiders, centipedes, millipedes, earwigs, mites, etc.) • Parasites (fleas, ticks, lice, bed bug) • Rodents

  4. Characteristics of the Phylum Arthropoda • The segmented bodies are arranged into regions, called tagmata (e.g., head, thorax, abdomen). • The paired appendages (e.g., legs, antennae) are jointed. • They posses a chitinous exoskeletion that must be shed during growth. • They have bilateral symmetry. • The nervous system is dorsal (belly) and the circulatory system is open and ventral (back).

  5. Arthropod Groups (taxa) The arthropods are divided into two large groups that exist today: The Chelicerates and The Mandibulates

  6. Chelicerate Arthropod Characters: • Pincher-like mouthparts - chelicerae - and pedipalps • NO antennae • Two body regions, usually - cephalothorax & abdomen • Four pairs of legs • Horseshoe crabs and arachnids are only living groups

  7. Mandibulate Arthropod Characters: • Mouthparts are mandibles - normally chewing sideways • One or two pairs of antennae • Various body region arrangements - cephalothorax & abdomen / head & trunk / head, thorax & abdomen • Variable leg numbers • Insects, crustaceans & myriapods

  8. Orders of Arachnids • Scorpionida - scorpions • Pseudoscorpionida - false scorpions • Phalangida - daddy-long-legs or harvestmen • Acari - mites & ticks • Araneida - spiders

  9. pedipalps & chelicerae cephalothorax abdomen Mite and Tick Body Regions

  10. American dog tick male Blacklegged (deer) tick female

  11. pedipalp chelicera (fang) cephalothorax narrow waist abdomen Spider Anatomy

  12. Abdomen Cephalothorax Chelicera (fang) Pedipalp Jumping Spider

  13. Classes of Myriapods (many legged arthropods) (all have one pair of antennae, a head region, and trunk with many pairs of legs, use trachea) • Diplopoda - millipedes • Chilopoda - centipedes • Symphyla - garden centipedes

  14. Millipede (Diplopoda) Two pair of legs per visible segment, attached under body. Centipede (Chilopoda) Pair of fangs under head, one pair legs per visible segment - attached to side of body. Symphylan (Symphyla) [garden centipede] No fangs, no eyes, legs attached to side of body. Myriapods [one pair of antennae, head & trunk regions, trunk with many pairs of legs]

  15. Millipede (Diplopoda) Centipede (Chilopoda) Garden centipede (Symphyla)

  16. Classes of Crustacea (mostly marine, fresh water, a few terrestrial) (all have two pair of antennae, five or more pairs of legs, segmented abdominal appendages, head & trunk or cephalothorax & abdomen body arrangement, have gills) • Isopoda - sowbugs or pillbugs • Amphipoda - sand fleas, amphipods • Cirripedia - barnicles • Decapoda - crabs, lobster, shrimp • several other minor orders

  17. Crayfish cephalothorax (Decapoda) Sowbug (Isopoda), a terrestrial crustacean

  18. Class Insecta (all have one pair of antennae, a head, thorax & abdominal regions, three pair of legs, adults usually have wings, use trachea) Life Cycle Groups • Incomplete - egg, nymph, adult stages • Complete - egg, larva, pupa, adult stages

  19. Egg Nymphal Adult Stage Stage Stage Incomplete Life Cycle Example (hairy chinch bug) egg 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th adult instar instar instar instar instar

  20. Egg Nymphal Adult Stage Stage Stage Incomplete Metamorphosis Example (hairy chinch bug) egg 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th shortwing normal wing instar instar instar instar instar adult adult

  21. Egg Larval Pupal Adult Stage Stage Stage Stage Complete Life Cycle Example (May/June beetle) egg 1st 2nd 3rd pupa adult instar instar instar

  22. Egg Larval Pupal Adult Stage Stage Stage Stage Complete Life Cycle Example (northern masked chafer) egg 1st 2nd 3rd pupa adult instar instar instar

  23. Cockroaches • Ancient group (survivors!) • Incomplete life cycle (eggs in cases) • Omnivores (eat almost any food) • Anthropomorphic species (tropical & subtropical species that live in the “comfort” of human buildings)

  24. Cockroach Species Domestic Ohio Species • German • Brownbanded • American • Oriental (=waterbug) Native Species • Woods roach

  25. Cockroach Species

  26. Cockroach Species Woods Roach • Native North American species • Attracted to lights at night • Reduce dense outside vegitation • Exclusion or parameter sprays useful in control

  27. Cockroach Management • Monitor (sticky traps, flushing agents, determine extent of population) • Sanitation • Exclusion (caulking, parameter sprays) • Crack & Crevice Sprays or Dusts (treat all areas at once) • Baits (eliminate other foods!)

  28. Stored Products Pests • Beetles (& weevils) • Moths • Mites

  29. Beetle Pantry Pests (by food type)

  30. Moth Pantry Pests • Indian meal moth (dried fruits, processed grains, bird seed, dry pet food) • Mediterranean flour moth (processed grains) • Almond Moth (processed grains) • Angoumois grain moth (whole grains - often in farm granaries)

  31. Beetle, Moth & Mite Pantry Pest Management • Monitor (visual inspection, pheromone traps) • Sanitation (destroy infested materials) • Exclusion (store foods in tightly sealed containers, in freezer if possible) • Freeze or heat infested products (150°F for 20 minutes or 0°F for four days) • Fumigate (large food stores only!)

  32. Fiber, Skin & Paper Pests • Carpet Beetles • (black carpet beetle, furniture carpet beetle, carpet beetle) • Clothes Moths • (webbing clothes moth, casemaking clothes moth, carpet moth) • Silverfish & Firebrat • (silverfish, firebrat, fourlined silverfish)

  33. Common carpet beetle Black carpet beetle

  34. Nuisance & Filth Flies • House Fly • Blow Flies • Flesh Flies • Fruit Flies • Moth Flies (drain fly) • Cluster Fly • Phorid Flies

  35. Winged Ants versus Winged Termites Elbowed antennae Beadlike, curved antennae Narrow “waist” No waist between thorax & abodmen Wings equal in size Wings unequal in size

  36. Nuisance Ants • Food Preferences (sugars, oils, or omnivores) • Nesting Habits (soil, tree voids, or building voids) • Worker Types (single - monomorphic - or multiple sizes - polymorphic) • Reproductive Strategy (single or multiple queens)

  37. Common Ohio Ants Carpenter Ant • Characterized by having polymorphic workers • Nest by excavating decaying wood or voids (they don’t eat the wood, they cast out wood shavings!) • Major nests in trees (satellite nests in buildings where water is available) • Most active at night (best time to find colony(ies) is at night!)

  38. Carpenter Ant Management • Locate nesting site(s) (outside and/or inside - look at night, repair water damaged structures) • Prune back trees and shrubs touching infested building • Seal external entry sites • Exclude with parameter sprays • Treat colonies (injection, dusts) (baiting is rarely successful)

  39. Common Ohio Ants House & Building Invaders • Larger Yellow (Citronella) Ant • Odorous House Ant • Acrobat Ants • Argentine Ant • Little Black Ant • Pavement Ant • Pharaoh Ant • Thief Ant

  40. Ant Management • Identify species! • Locate nesting site (outside and/or inside) • Prune back trees and shrubs touching infested building • Seal external entry sites • Exclude with parameter sprays • Select appropriate bait • Treat colonies (injection, dusts)

  41. Household Related Parasites • Fleas • Ticks • Lice (head, body, pubic) • Mosquitoes • No-see-ums (ceratopogonids) • Bird mites

  42. Fleas • Cat, dog & rat fleas are most commonly found (cat flea is, by far, the most common on dogs and cats!) • Adults suck blood for food • Eggs drop from host • Flea larvae feed on organic debris & blood excrement from adult fleas • Pupae may remain dormant

  43. Flea Life Cycle Eggs - 2-14 days Larvae - 7-60 days Pupae - 5-15 days Adults - 2-12 months females - 15-20 eggs/day - 600 total