Archaeologists: learn about people by studying traces of early settlement such as bones and artifacts (jewelry, clothes, tools). Anthropologists: study culture and re-create a picture of early people’s cultural behavior. Paleontologists: study fossils (teeth, skulls, other bones) to date their remains. *work as a team to date ancient remains, rocks and learn more about how prehistoric people lived.
The Beginning of Time • Universe begins with the “Big Bang” • Life begins in Africa • Other theories… Hominids: all types of early humans that walk upright • Australopithecines– earliest type of hominid. • Lived 4-1 million years ago. • 3 to 5 feet tall. • 1/3 of our brain size • First to walk upright…why? • Travel distances, spot threats, had opposable thumb • David Johannson and Mary Leakey • “Lucy” female skeleton found in Ethiopia, 3.5 million years old
First Humans (cont’d) Homo habilis: man of skill, found tools made of rock • Beginning of the stone age a.k.a. Paleolithic Age • Also the Ice Age, temperature much cooler, glaciers advance and retreat 18 times Homo erectus: more skillful hunters, invented better tools for digging. • Found in Africa, Asia & Europe. First to use fire & create a spoken language
Homo Sapiens Homo sapiens are modern humans and it means ‘wise men’ Neanderthal: first to have religious beliefs & rituals Cro-Magnons: Identical skeletal remains to modern humans • Planned hunts, advanced language, survived winters & replace Neanderthals *In each development the brain capacity increases – see page 9
Recent Discoveries Otzi The Ice Man – Frozen in ice for 5,000 years Discovered in 1991 by German hikers in the Alps 5’2” 130 lbs, 45 yrsold Grain & wild goat meat found in his intestine Was in a battle with 4 others, killed by arrow See page 15 Toumai: “Hope for Life” Found in Chad in 2002, earliest ancestor discovered 6-7 million years old See page 11
Human Advances Nomads Highly mobile, moved places searching for new food sources Called hunter-gatherers because their food supply depends on hunting animals & collecting plant foods • Men hunt, women gather berries & grasses Over 100 tools to catch, kill, carve animals and make clothes
Neolithic Revolution Agricultural revolution significance Change in climate with higher temps makes it possible (p. 17) Now a sustainable food source for humans Rich grain supply leads to population boom Occurs in Africa, China, Mexico, Peru (p. 16) Birthplace in Jarmo, Zagros Mtns (modern Iraq) Slash & burn farming • Burnt trees & grasses fertilizes the soil Domestication of animals: train them & use them for steady food sources Painting, pottery, weaving, jewelry, mirrors and knives from volcanic rock
Villages grow into cities -First Civilization develops in Sumer, Mesopotamia (Iraq) -Ushers in the bronze age use of bronze, not copper or stone, for tools & weapons -Civilization defined as: Advanced cities Specialized workers Complex institutions Record keeping Advanced technology