Summarizing, Paraphrasing, and Direct Quotations The skills that strengthen our writing HV 2013
How do we report the research we find? Summarizing Paraphrasing Direct Quotations
Summarizing involves putting the main idea(s) of a passage into your own words. Summaries are significantly shorter than the original because they are limited to only the main ideas. You must be careful not to change or distort the meaning of the original work. Again, it is necessary to attribute summarized ideas to the original source. Summarizing According to the Textbook
Paraphrasing involves putting a passage –phrase by phrase– from your source into your own words. Your paraphrase should be of equal or shorter length than the original passage. Remember: a paraphrase is a complete rewriting, not just a rearrangement of the words. A paraphrase must also be attributed to the original source. Paraphrasing According to the textbook
Quotations must be identical to the original source. Quote only words, phrases, lines, and passages that are particularly interesting or unusual and keep all quotations as brief as possible. Changes must not be made in the spelling, capitalization, or punctuation of the quote. You must attribute all quotes to the original author. Avoid over quoting. Weaving quotes into your own writing will ensure that your voice is heard. Direct Quotations According to the textbook
Summarization • Sums up the main points of the source • Uses your own words • Much shorter than the original source
Paraphrase • Matches the sources meaning • Uses your own words • Near the same length (can be a little longer or a little shorter) than the original passage
Direct Quotations • Matches the source word for word • Surrounds your word for word research with quotation marks (“”) • Cannot change original passage’s grammar or spelling • Must have a citation– you must cite where you found the information • Cannot be left alone– you must have explanatory words that tell where you found your information and why you included the information that you did
Students often use too many direct quotations when they take notes, resulting in too many of them in the final research paper. In fact, probably only about 10% of the final copy should consist of directly quoted material. So it is important to limit the amount of source material copied while taking notes.
Never leave a quote or paraphrase by itself – you must introduce it, explain it, and show how it relates to your thesis.
Advanced: • You need not always reproduce complete sentences. Sometimes you may want to quote just a word or phrase as part of your sentence. • A colon usually precedes quoted material if it is formally introduced. Otherwise, a comma precedes a quotation if it is integrated into your sentence. • If a quotation runs to more than four lines in your paper, set it off from your text by beginning a new line, indenting one inch from the left margin and typing it double-spaced, without adding quotation marks. • If you find the same information in three or more different sources you can conclude that this information is “common knowledge.” Common knowledge information does not require documentation. If you are not sure whether particular information is common knowledge, give credit to your source with a citation! • Direct quotations should be used selectively; the majority of your paper should be written in your own words.
How does it look in writing? People's fears about December 21 came from, "The calender that has people worried is the Maya long count calender.“ Who said it though? Where did you find it? People's fear about December 21st is explained by author Sarah McCarry in "Is December 21st, 2012 the End of the World?," "The calender that has people worried is the Maya long count calender."
When using direct quotations, you must put explanatory words • According to source, "You must put explanatory words." • The source reported, "You must put explanatory words." • The source says, "You must put explanatory words."
The underlined section is the explanatory words • According to Mrs. Vanoy, "You must use explanatory words." • Mrs. Vanoyreported, "You must use explanatory words." • The source says, "You must use explanatory words." • “You must use explanatory words,” Hillary Vanoy, Garrard Middle School, teacher instructed.
Common Mistakes Question: What is your favorite lunch? Answer: Chicken nuggets because they are delicious. Mistake 1: "Chicken nuggets because they are delicious" • Must have explanatory words. Quotes cannot stand alone! Mistake 2: According to Blake, chicken nuggets because they are delicious. • Must have quotation marks. Also, in the explanatory words tell what question is being answered. Mistake 3: According to Blake, "He says chicken nuggets because they are delicious." • Blake wouldn't talk in 3rd person, he would say “my." Also, in the explanatory words, tell what question is being answered (What's your favorite lunch?) Correct: When asked about his favorite lunch, Blake says, "Mine is chicken nuggets because they are delicious."
Direct Quotations and Open Responses • You have practice finding direct quotes when you write open responses, but there is a difference! • With open responses it's acceptable to not cite where you found your quote or even to not include quotations because you are not graded on grammar/mechanics. Open responses are scored on if you can find the evidence-- not cite it! • BUT When you use direct quotations for supporting details in your own writing, it MUST be cited or it's considered plagiarism!