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CURTAIN WALL

CURTAIN WALL

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CURTAIN WALL

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  1. CURTAIN WALL Structural Seminar Submitted by Richard Sadokpam B.Arch 8th Sem. 060143 Richard Sadokpam, 060143

  2. GENERAL CONCEPTS Curtain Wall Curtain walls are non-load bearing exterior walls with the following characteristics: • They are suspended in front of the structural frame • Their own dead weight and wind loads are transferred to the structural frame through point anchorages. • The design of the joints between the curtain wall elements and the fastening technique permit the erection of continuous wall surfaces of any size. Grid construction of curtain walls • The majority of curtain wall consists of a rectangular grid of vertical and horizontal members, framing openings filled with inserts or glass. • The inserts and the glazing are the space enclosing elements of the grid curtain wall, while the grid itself forms the framework, within which these are installed. • Normally, the grid is attached to the supporting structure, to which it then transfers the entire weight of the curtain wall plus possible wind loads. • only in a few cases, the inserts are fastened to the structure directly. • The grid is clearly expressed in elevation and gives the curtain wall façade, its characteristic structure. Richard Sadokpam, 060143

  3. Panel Construction of Curtain wall • The term panel construction will be applied to wall assemblies consisting of large, story high panels fastened either directly or indirectly • It is done by secondary framing to the supporting structure • the only components of panel curtain walls are the panels themselves • The panels combine the twin functions of enclosing space and transferring the dead and live loads to the supporting structure Important characteristics of such panels is their jointless, continuous outer surface STRUCTURAL PROBLEMS OF CURTAIN WALL Loads • Although curtain walls have been defined as “non-bearing exterior walls,” they are loaded horizontally by the wind and vertically by their own dead weight • it must be remembered that winds produce suctions as well as pressure on the face of a building. • These negative forces are important in dimensioning anchors, fasteners and glazing bleads installed from the outside. • In hurricanes for more glass is blown out of buildings than into them. Richard Sadokpam, 060143

  4. The effect of Wind loading • The wind loads acting on a curtain wall are transferred through fasteners to the supporting structure. • Thus, the curtain wall is stressed in bending. • Its own weight acts as a vertical force. Accordingly, the elements of a curtain wall must be designed for a direct stress and bending combined. • The dead weight of the wall results either in • in tensile stress if the units are suspended or • in compressive stresses if the units stand on their bottom edge • In designing for combined bending and tension there is no need to provide for buckling, but buckling is a distinct possibility where bending and compression are involved. • The curtain wall should be made of material capable of resisting bending action Elastic deformation • The elastic deformation of curtain wall is a consequence of the bending due to wind loads • All the elements exposed to the wind deflect in the direction in which the wind loads act • In grid construction, moreover, the weight of the sprendals and glazing bears on the horizontal members of the grid causing them to deflect vertically. • The degree of elastic deformation is variable • It depends on the stiffness and the modulus of elasticity of the components. • An effort should be made to prevent these deflections, which to a large extent determine the tightness and proper functioning of the joints • Unfortunately, finding the modulus of elasticity of panels and wall units composed of a number of different materials is not a easy proposition. in such cases, theoretical calculations of the deflection must be supplemented by the results of load tests Richard Sadokpam, 060143

  5. TYPES OF CURTAIN WALLS • DOUBLE SKIN CURTAIN WALL • Exterior circulation • Interior circulation • Double circulation FULL GLASS CURTAIN WALL • METAL CURTAIN WALL • Aluminium single • Stainless steel plate • Aluminium composite panel • Honeycomb panel • UNITIZED CURTAIN WALL • Unitized • Individual unitized • Glass flank unitized • STONE CURTAIN WALL • Black bolt stone • Splint stone • Continuous groove stone • STICK CURTAIN WALL • Exposed frame glass • Full hidden frame glass • Semi hidden frame glass • Dry processing concealed frame glass TILE CURTAIN WALL • POINT FIXING GLASS WALL • Art steel structure supported • Space tensile cable supported • Self balancing supported • Single cable supported PHOTOELECTRICITY CURTAIN WALL VIDEO CURTAIN WALL Richard Sadokpam, 060143

  6. DOUBLE SKIN CURTAIN WALL • Double-skin dynamic energy saving curtain wall ( thermal shaft curtain wall), according to ventilation principle, it can be divided into • natural ventilation and • forced ventilation systems, • namely exterior circulation double skin curtain wall system and interior circulation double skin curtain wall system. • It consists of an outer curtain wall, an inner curtain wall, sun shading device, air inlet device, outlet device. The design idea is to achieve energy saving, environmental protection, and to provide a pleasant working or living environment.  Special features of products for exterior circulation double skin curtain wall system: 1.According to air thermal compression principle and chimney effect, the fresh air is let indoor, the fouled air is exhausted to outdoor, this can effectively prevent the dust from entering into the indoor. 2.Preeminent winter heat preservation and summer heat insulation function. 3.Reasonable lighting function, according to the needs of user, the light adjustment can be changed, and the lighting environment can be ameliorated. 4.Preeminent sound insulation and acoustic function, creating a serene working and living environment for the user. Richard Sadokpam, 060143

  7. Double Skin Curtain Wall Interior Circulation Double Skin Curtain Wall Special features of products for interior circulation double skin curtain wall: System principle ●Shutting down air conduit to indoor in summer, let most of hot air inside the double layer sealed thermal shaft area vent into outdoor. ●In winter, the greenhouse effect heat--retaining air will be heated by conduit loop system and passed to indoor, reaching energy-saving effect. ●System structure--whole system adopts unitized structure, outer layer adopts sealed insulation glass, inner layer adopts single glass pivot-hung window, shading louver is installed between the two walls; The outlet is joined with building air-conditioning system. Richard Sadokpam, 060143

  8. Double Skin Curtain Wall Performance  ●Heat-insulating property--with admirable heat preservation, heat-insulating property, k value of average heat transmission coefficient can reach to 0.96W/m2K. ●Sound insulation property--admirable sound insulation performance, weighted noise insulation factor can reach to RW>45dB. ●Mechanical ventilation--by assorting of curtain wall, heating and ventilation and air-conditioning system, that provides fresh air and realizes energy recovery, the specific discharge, according to different use location, can maximally reach to 100m3/h. ●Comfortable degree--enough light indoor, favorable temperature. Richard Sadokpam, 060143

  9. Double Skin Curtain Wall Double Circulation Double Skin Curtain Wall System principle  By adopting compound ventilation mode, natural draught and mechanical ventilation can alternately operate under the different condition. The air outlet is opened in summer, and it let most of hot air inside double layer sealed thermal shaft vent out of the outdoor. In winter, the air outlet is shut down, by using the greenhouse effect to heat air of inter layer and increase temperature at internal surface, reaching energy-saving effect. ●System structure- -whole system adopts unitized structure, outer layer adopts  sealed insulation glass, inner layer adopts single-glass pivot-hung window, louver for adjusting light is in the middle; air outlet is applied blower. ●Heat preservation property— with admirable heat preservation and heat- insulating property, k value of average heat transmission coefficient can reach to 1.15W/m2K.  Richard Sadokpam, 060143

  10. Double Skin Curtain Wall ●Sound insulation property--with admirable sound insulation performance, weighted noise insulation reaches to RW>42dB. ●Mixed ventilation--enting velocity can realize self-control, without relying on building air-conditioning system, design construction is more agility. Richard Sadokpam, 060143

  11. UNITIZED CURTAIN WALL Unitized curtain wall Unitized curtain wall consist of different components and coated materials fabricated at shop and assembled into a single whole panel with the panel height of one or more storeys, then transported to construction site for erection. The panels are precisely connected to the building with the pre-embeds on the building main structure, the fine adjustment to finish the curtain wall installation is achieved by the adjustment screw.( show as picture) Special features of products for unitized exposed frame curtain wall system, unitized concealed frame curtain wall system, unitized semi- concealed frame curtain wall system: ●Unitized panels are assembled in the factory, with high degree of precision. ●Fast installation efficiency, short construction period, easy to protect finished product. ●That can be simultaneously constructed with major structural of civil work, greatly shortens the construction period for whole building. ●Structure adopts pressure equalization principle, with drainage system inside, good anti- rainwater leakage and anti-air penetration quality.  Richard Sadokpam, 060143

  12. Unitized curtain wall ●Joint location of panels is sealed with special weather resistance rubber strip, that ensures self-cleaning function of curtain wall , and lowers the degree of pollution on the surface.  ●Socket joint mode is adopted between the plates, with strong earthquake resistance property. Richard Sadokpam, 060143

  13. Individual unitized curtain wall Unitized curtain wall ●Structural feature--glass plates can be installed and taken down freely. ●Special features of linkage--wind pressure is mostly withstood by the hook plates on the four sides of glass plates, the design of structure sealant makes the structure possess dual functions for added security protection. ●Architectural effect--the line of outside view is both simple and lively, with good transparency. ●Range of application--able to achieve large subdivision plate, and is suitable for huge buildings such as aerodrome, exhibition hall etc. Richard Sadokpam, 060143

  14. Unitized curtain wall Glass flank unitized curtain wall ●Structural feature--glass flank adopts dismountable lock catch type connection system, which is secure, reliable, and easy to maintain. ●Water tightness, air tightness--that use pressure equalised principle, multi-cavity step by step decompression, structure drainage, possessing favorable water tightness, air-tightness properties. ●Outside view effect--under the lamplight in the night, the light leaves you infinite dream with the mutual shine between the glass flank and facial glass. ●Inside view effect--it adopts hidden type unlock structural design, with the inside view effect of both continuity and unification. Richard Sadokpam, 060143

  15. STICK CURTAIN WALL A stick curtain wall requires installation of individual framing members to form the support grid for glazing of the infill panes. It can be divided into three types namely Concealed framing, semi-concealed framing and exposed framing. Glass panes are fixed with either a pressure plate or a hook-on profile. • Exposed frame glass • Full hidden frame glass • Semi hidden frame glass • Dry processing concealed frame glass Special features of products:  Block press type structural member curtain wall  Articulated joint type structural member curtain wall Structural member type exposed frame glass curtain wall  Richard Sadokpam, 060143

  16. Stick Curtain Wall Block press type structural member curtain wall ( also called unit structural member curtain wall) ● Mullions with movement joints to cater for building movements. ● Pressure plate provide uniform clamping pressure to minimize glass deformation. ● Good acoustic performance. ● Applicable to flat and curved curtain wall. ● Low maintenance cost and easy replacement of damages Articulated joint type structural member curtain wall ( also called small unitized structural member curtain wall) ● Simple installation procedure. ● Mullions with movement point to cater for building movements. ● Applicable to flat curtain wall. ● Good acoustic performance. Structural member type exposed frame glass curtain wall  ●Heat preservation property --it adopts heat insulation structure and deploys co-squeezed rubber strip with air insulation function, making the coefficient of heat transmission for frame reach by 1.94W/m2K. ●Satisfying various requirements--by selecting serial heat insulation strip and relevant glass allocation, it can obtain different heat preservation property, to satisfy energy saving requirements of buildings in different area. Richard Sadokpam, 060143

  17. Stick Curtain Wall Structural member type full hidden frame glass curtain wall Special features of products: ●Standard products--standardization and serialization in design for products, reliable and stable quality, that satisfy different requirements. ●Structural features--Fixed loocation installation, Fixed spacing compact structure, glass plates with stress in uniformity; plates floating type connection structure, inside plane with strong displacement and absorbing ability. ●Water tightness, air tightness--caulking joint with weather sealant, water tight and air tightness reach ( GB / T 15225-94) Ⅰ level standard. ●Architectural effect--elevation is smooth and simplicity. ●Heat preservation property--it adopts baker rod filled air cavity, weather sealant caulked joint, making coefficient of heat transmission of frame reach to 1.7W/m2K. Richard Sadokpam, 060143

  18. Stick Curtain Wall Structural member type semi- hidden frame glass curtain wall Structural member type semi- hidden frame ( show transversely) glass curtain wall ●Standard products--products standardization, serialization design , reliable and stable quality, satisfy different requirements. ●Structural feature--bearing plate fixed on transverse can assume glass self weight, with reliable structure. ●Architectural effect--it meets the different requirement for effect of elevation of building by changing pinch plate in transverse direction. Structural member type semi-hidden frame ( show vertically) glass curtain wall  ●Standard products--products standardization, serialization design, reliable and stable quality, all satisfy different requirements. ●Structural feature--glass self weight is assumed by bearing plate fixed on transverse beam, with the safe and reliable structure. ●Architectural effect--that meets different requirement for effect of elevation of building by changing pinch plate in vertical direction. Richard Sadokpam, 060143

  19. Stick Curtain Wall Structural member type dry processing concealed frame glass curtain wall ●Standard products--products standardization, serialization design , reliable and stable quality, satisfy different requirements. ●Structural feature--it adopts hook join type mechanical interlock structure, both safety and reliable; glass plates can realize installation in disorder, simplicity of operation, and immediate installation. ●Special features of performance--three pieces of sealing rubber strip, water tightness, air tightness can reach( GB / T 15225-94) I level standard. ● Architectural effect--in terms of inside and outside view effect, the opening part is in accord with fixed part in elevation of building, both harmony and unification on the whole. Richard Sadokpam, 060143

  20. POINT FIXING GLASS WALL Point fixing glass curtain wall consists of decorative surface glass, connection component and supporting structure. According to supporting structure, it can be divided into  1. Art steel structure supported point fixing glass curtain wall system 2. Space tensile cable supported point fixing glass curtain wall system 3. Self-balancing tensile cable supported point fixing glass curtain wall system 4. Single cable supported point fixing glass curtain wall system  Decorative surface glass must be handled by toughening treatment, and can adopt with single-glass, insulation glass or laminated glass. Special features of products ●Transparent effect makes natural and harmonious scene between indoor space and outdoor environment. ●Exquisite structural member and aesthetic structure realize delicate combination of metal structure and glass decoration art. ●All kinds of supporting structure satisfy the requirements of building structure and decorative effect. ●Glass and connection claw adopt ball pivot linkage , with comparatively strong capacity in absorbing deformation. Richard Sadokpam, 060143

  21. Point Fixing Glass Wall Art steel structure supported point fixing glass curtain wall  YUANDA-PGCS-A01 ●Structural system--the composite structure system is composed of curved face steel pipe lattice shell system and curved face cable nets system. Lattice shell system withstand exterior load action, the stability within plane is assumed by cable nets system. ●Special features of linkage--the universal hinged spherical insert-type joint is adopted between the steel pipe structural members. ●Art feature--the combination of flexibility system, rigidity system and glass perfectly embodies true modern art of industry. Richard Sadokpam, 060143

  22. Point Fixing Glass Wall YUANDA-PGCS-A02 ● Structural system --fish-belly type plane pipe truss system is adopted, the structure is both reasonable and economy. ●Special features of linkage--the weld joint type is adopted between the steel pipes, with smooth lines and exquisite joint point. ●Art feature--fish-belly truss is disposed in parallel type, with decent and transparent effect. Richard Sadokpam, 060143

  23. Point Fixing Glass Wall YUANDA-PGCS-A03 ●Structural system--space truss structure system, the large arm acts as the part of space unit, as well as the principal connection member. ●Material features--organic combination of stainless steel and carbon steel. ●Shape esthetics--the force and beauty are incarnated incisively and vividly by combining the bow type shape of large claw arm and point supporting of glass. Richard Sadokpam, 060143

  24. Point Fixing Glass Wall Space tensile cable supported point fixing glass curtain wall YUANDA-PGCS-B01 ●Structural system--the composite structure system is composed of curved face steel pipe lattice shell system and curved face cable nets system. The lattice shell system can withstand exterior load action, the stability within plane is assumed by cable nets system. ●Special features of linkage--the universal hinged spherical insert-type joint is adopted between the steel pipe structural members. ●Art feature--the combination of flexibility system, rigidity system and glass perfectly embodies true modern art of industry. Richard Sadokpam, 060143

  25. Point Fixing Glass Wall YUANDA-PGCS-B02 ●Structural system--the structure adopts transverse plane cable rod truss to withstand the exterior load action, the vertical cable rod plays the stabilizing action outside the plane and also withstand self weight load of glass, which is the system of geometrical nonlinearity and flexibility for prestress. ●Range of application--that is mostly suitable for the opening between the storey with large aspect ratio, and more economically utilizes the stress mechanism of structure. ●Architectural effect--curtain wall enjoys the effect of transparent, brightness and legerity. Richard Sadokpam, 060143

  26. Point Fixing Glass Wall Self-balancing supported point fixing glass curtain wall YUANDA-PGCS-C01 ●Structural system--the structure consists of pulling cable, draw rod and steel structure, which is self-balancing system of prestress.● Structural feature--draw rod and pulling cable adopt pre-stretching system for prestress, by relying on itself structural balance, under the outside load action, the prestress greatly decreases the load transferred to the major structure.  ●Architectural effect--simplicity, liveliness and coherence. That fully embodies the beauty, both rigidity of steel and gentleness of cable rod. Richard Sadokpam, 060143

  27. Point Fixing Glass Wall Single cable supported point fixing glass curtain wall YUANDA-PGCS-D01 ●Structural system -- the structure adopts single-layer plane cable nets structure twisted crossly by transverse and vertical pulling cables to withstand the exterior load action, which is the system of geometrical nonlinearity and flexibility for prestress. ●Structural feature-- structure is based on principle of tennis racket, by applied prestress the cable nets produces the rigidity to withstand the load outside plane. ●Range of application-- that is suitable for quadrangle entry elevation and large span opening etc. ●Architectural effect-- the most transparent curtain wall system gives you the fully visual impact. Richard Sadokpam, 060143

  28. Point Fixing Glass Wall YUANDA-PGCS-D02 ●Structure system - - supported by concave soft cable network supporting system composed by large-scale hanging cable and the single layer wire crossing network pointsystem. ●Product characteristic - - large-scale hanging single cable network system forms different in concave fold curtain wall by advanced form finding technology. ●Earthquake resistance ability - - the waving machine between single cable anchored damper and hanging cable make the machine have superior anti earthquake capability. ●Construction effect - - magnificent boundless, grand, visual shocks. Richard Sadokpam, 060143

  29. Point Fixing Glass Wall Richard Sadokpam, 060143

  30. FULL GLASS CURTAIN WALL YUANDA-FGCS-01 ●Structure features--glass rib and glass board is connected by structure rubber; the top of glass rib uses hangs to connect with node, the base uses the slip joint. ●Construction effect --the light alternately shining between glass rib and surface glass leaves you the infinite dreams. YUANDA-FGCS-02 ●Structure features--the glass rib and glass board is connected by stainless claws. The top of glass rib uses hangs as connection, flex as connection in the base. ●Construction effect--stainless claws under light show you special artistic effect. Richard Sadokpam, 060143

  31. METAL CURTAIN WALL The metal curtain wall decoration effect is diverse, colorful and anti-corrosive.The metal curtain wall could be divided into1. Aluminum single curtain wall2. Aluminum composite panel curtain wall 3. Honeycomb panel curtain wall4. Stainless steel plate curtain wall Aluminum single curtain wall ●Material characteristics--good ductility, easy to bend processing and the complex curved surface forming, easy to adapt construction decoration request. Corrosion resistance and weather proofing. ●Connection characteristics--floating-type pressing joint structure, with dislodgement absorb and earthquake resistance ability. ●The construction effect--fluorocarbon spray coating technology bring the elevation more colorful. Richard Sadokpam, 060143

  32. Metal Curtain Wall Stainless steel plate curtain wall ●Material characteristics--artistic and smooth surface and diverse utilization; good performance of anti-corrosive; high temperature proofing and oxidation intensity, be of fire protection performance.●Structure features--panel floating link and strong dislodges absorbing ability and anti earthquake capability.●Decoration effect --different processing methods lead to different decoration effect. Richard Sadokpam, 060143

  33. Metal Curtain Wall Aluminum composite panel curtain wall ●Material characteristics--light weight, simple processing craft. The surface is dealt with fluorine carbon coating processing, with anti-corrosive, anti-ultraviolet radiation etc merits. Compared with the aluminum single plate, it has good sound insulation and thermal performance. ●Installation structure--localization installment, could be three dimensional adjusted with strong dislodgement absorbing capability. ●Construction effect--metal sense of reality, rich color, smooth surface and lines. Richard Sadokpam, 060143

  34. Metal Curtain Wall Honeycomb panel curtain wall ●Material characteristics--superior thermal and heat insulation performance; high rigidity and light weight with high intensity and the anti-avulsion and smooth surface. ●Installation structure--pressing type connection enriches products with high security. ●Construction effect--metal sense of reality and rich color, smooth lines and bright sense of depth. Richard Sadokpam, 060143

  35. STONE CURTAIN WALL Divided into: 1. Back bolt stone curtain wall 2. Splint stone curtain wall 3. Continuous groove stone curtain wall Back bolt stone curtain wall ●Connection form--use stainless steel expanding non-stressing anchor connection, safe and reliable.  ●Installation structure--suspension flexible connection will bring high anti earthquake performance. It is adjustable in multi-directions, and of smooth and neat surface. ●Construction effect--noble stone material and bright sense of quality display its grave natural and noble luxurious. Richard Sadokpam, 060143

  36. Stone curtain wall Splint stone curtain wall ●The connection form-- aluminum alloy carrier connection, the cementation completed in the factory, the quality is reliable. ●Installation structure --hanging style structure allows to be three dimensional adjusted. Elastic cushion’s installation may achieved and provide flexible connection and the earthquake resistance performance. ●Construction effect--noble stone material and bright sense of quality display the building’s grave and noble luxurious. Richard Sadokpam, 060143

  37. Stone curtain wall Continuous groove stone curtain wall ●Connection form -- enhance system safety and the intensity effectively by adopting continuous aluminum alloy molding. ●Installation structure -- structure installation may realize three dimensional adjustment, making sure the curtain wall surface smooth and neat. ●Construction effect -- noble stone and bright sense of quality display the building's grave and noble luxurious nature. Richard Sadokpam, 060143

  38. TILE CURTAIN WALL ●Installment structure--adopt stainless steel pressed spring to form flexible connection to reduce noise. Dry installation. yield no pollution and easy to be installed.●Material features--tile is green environment protection product with no color difference and could be self-cleaned. ●Artistic effect--special color for tile material make buildings more traditional and modern. Richard Sadokpam, 060143

  39. PHOTOELECTRICITY CURTAIN WALL ●Energy conservation--reduce wall surface and roofing temperature, and reduce the air conditioning load and energy consumption. ●Environmental protection--no need of fuel, without waste gas, heat, and noise pollution. ●Practical--relieve high electricity consumption daytime and solve the problems in less electricity regions. ●Effect--all kinds of light module are adopted in glass, more colorful and artistic expressive force. Photoelectricity curtain wall has strong electricity generation function, with the capability of 130w/m2. The 10000m2photoelectricity curtain wall may generate electricity every day (10 hours): 130×10000×10=13000kwh Richard Sadokpam, 060143

  40. VIDEO CURTAIN WALL ●Operate by LED management tool V5.5 software researched independently●The computer may gather many kinds of media information●Screen control system may adjust display monitor’s physical parameter and transform digital signal into light signal through the optical fiber long-distance transmission●Display panel control system transfer the light signal into digital signal and control display effect.●The acoustic yield more rich expression Richard Sadokpam, 060143

  41. VIDEO CURTAIN WALL Richard Sadokpam, 060143

  42. CURTAIN WALL SYSTEMS A pictorial study of High-Rise buildings in Hong Kong Richard Sadokpam, 060143

  43. COMMON TYPES OF CURTAIN WALL SYSTEMS FOR HIGH-RISE BUILDINGS 1) Stick system 2) Unit system 3) Unit and mullion system 4) Column-cover and spandrel system 5) Various types of glass wall system Typical stick system wall – the Gateway at TsimShaTsui Richard Sadokpam, 060143

  44. Typical unitized system wall – the Cheung Kong Center Richard Sadokpam, 060143

  45. Glass wall and skylight for the Festival Walk Shopping Mall Richard Sadokpam, 060143

  46. Glass wall for the Terminal Building at Hong Kong Chek Lap Kok International Airport Richard Sadokpam, 060143

  47. Glass wall used for the Hong Kong Convention and Exhibition Center Richard Sadokpam, 060143

  48. The glass wall for the International Finance Center (Hong Kong Station) Richard Sadokpam, 060143

  49. Glass Hubs at podium roof of the International Finance Center Richard Sadokpam, 060143

  50. Curtain wall for the Cyberport Development Richard Sadokpam, 060143