globacid for poultry n.
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  2. Many acids are available, organic or minerals; liquids or solids Mineral or inorganic doesn’t means that there are not naturaly essential for organism Main acids used in animal nutrition


  4. Acidity – Mineral and organic acids • It is simply related to the concentration of H+ or more precisely of H30+ in an aquaeous solution • Consequently, any molecula able to liberate in solution is H+an acid • Main acids are divided into mineral and organic acids • Mineral acids : • Hydrochloric HCl -> H+ + Cl- • Sulfuric acid H2SO4 -> H+ + SO4- • Phosphoric acid H3PO4 -> H+ + H2PO4- • Organic acids or carboxylic acids : • All molecula having a COOH (carboxylic) function : • COOH -> H+ + COO- • Formic, acetic, propionic, butyric, etc…

  5. STRONG AND WEAK ACIDS • Strong acids : • The dissociation in solution is allways complete and no reversible • AH -> H+ + A- • Weak acids : • The dissociation is not total , balance between 2 forms, one called dissociated, the second called non dissociated : • AH <-> H+ + A- • Like any chemical balance this equilibria allways respect stricly a chemical rule due to the equilibrium constancy K • K = [H+][A-]/[AH] • we speak about Ka, K for constancy a for acidity • The higher the constancy, the more H+ is produced, so the stronger is the acid • pKa is equal to -LOG10 of Ka, the lower the pKa, the stronger the acid

  6. STRONG AND WEAK ACIDS IN ANIMAL NURITION • Acid classification : • Organic acids are allways weak acids : • All organic acids have a pKa and consequently are weak acids • Some minerals acids are strong acids : • For example HCl is a strong acid, allways completly dissociated. • Even if this acid that can be found in the organism, especially in the stomach. It is very difficult to use it in animal production. • The risk of over dosage is important. • In the organisme, its production is strongly regulated according to the pH of the stomach, so no risk of excess

  7. STRONG AND WEAK ACIDS IN ANIMAL NURITION • Acid classification : • Some mineral acids are also weak acids : • 2 of them are fundamental for the regulation of pH in the organism : • Phosphoric acid : • H3PO4   H+ + H2PO4- pKa1 2.2 • H2PO4-   H+ + HPO4-- pKa 7.3 • The second acidity is the main important in the regulation of intracellular pH and urine pH • Carbonique acide : • H2CO3   H+ + HCO3- pKa = 6.3 • This reaction is fundamental for blood, intestinal environmental pH balance • So mineral acids in some case means also physiological and even fundamental for organism metabolism regulation

  8. H30+ = c Ka1 + c Ka2 + c Ka3so pH depends on concentration and pKa only Only the lower pKa has an effect on pH for poly acids + 1 point of pKa -> + 10 times more concentration needed to reach the same pH (0.1 x 10-2 = 1.0 x 10-3) Lower pH are obtained with lower pKa Pka effect on pH

  9. Conclusion : lower pKa makes lower pH Strengh of acids More efficient to reduce pH

  10. Number of acids function concentration Formic can be the more concentrated liquid acid Use to be a cheap by-product so used in animal nutrition But it is highly corrosive and non palatable


  12. 4,4 6 8 E. COLI 7,8 CLOSTRIDIUM 5 SALMONELLES 4,2 6,8 pH 3 4 5 6 7 8 Bacteriostatic action throught pH reduction STAPHYLOCOQUES Non mutiplication area Multiplication area

  13. Protein digestion and pH Enzym activity Pepsine activity and consequently stomach protein digestion is optimum when pH is low Reducing pH in stomach also improves protein digestibility


  15. Ka = [H3O+] [A-] is a constant value Acids forms and pH Same proportion AH undissociated form dominant A- dissociated form dominant pKa pH [AH] • pH = pKa or [H3O+]=[A]  [AH]=[A] • If [H3O+] increases [AH] must increase or [A-] must decrease • When pH is low, acid conditions  AH is the most important • When pH is higher than pKa, A- is the most important

  16. pH effect on acid dissociation Butyric acid Formic acid The lower the pH, the more undissociated form, ex : 90% at pH 3.8 vs 50% at pH 4.8 for butyric The higher the pKa, the more undissociated form at same pH, ex : at pH 4.8, 50% for butyric vs 10% for formic

  17. BUFFERING CAPACITY • Can be measured at pH 3, 4 or 5 • For the stomach activity, the pH 3 is the most important (pepsine activity) • The liberation of acidity before the reference pH is important. • At pH 3, formic or lactic acid with a pKa of 3.8% have only 15% of efficiency, while phosphoric and citric respectively 88% and 43%

  18. H+ - RCOO pH  H+ pH  BACTERICIDE ACTION OF ACIDIFIER RCOOH In neutral environment RCOOH In acid environment RCOO- polar,can’t enter the cell No bactericid action RCOO- polar,can’t leave the cell H+ acidify bacteria content BACTERIA Neutral environment Energy H+ RCOO- Accumlates in the cell, cause of RNA dammage To increase pH, bacterias must excrete H+, spending energy 1st cause of cell death 2nd cause of cell death

  19. BUTYRATE > PROPIONATE > ACETATE pH reduction has a synergistic effect INHIBITION OF COLIBACILLI BY VFA VFA concentration to reduce by 50% Colibacilli growth • Gàlfi and Neogràdy, 1992

  20. Globacid LF-60-Plus : Effect against E. Coli in the intestine of broilers Log (Nbr/gr) Regional Animal Health Institute - Torhout (B) : Dr. R. Wyffels - 15 days trial period - 5 days pretrial period - 4 kg/ton


  22. H3PO4 acid effect R-COOH R-COO- Synergy phosphoric and organic acids Bactericide action of Acids mix R-COOH R-COO- 3.8 pKa pH Lowering the pH, phosphoric acids makes the undissociated form dominant When acids will react with other components, the strongest acid in a mix is allways the first one to react. So phosphoric acid reacts allways before organic acids in the mix, preserving their efficiency Organic acids can have a more bactericide effect

  23. pH reduction and phosphorique inclusion 22% 2.5 Kg inclusion /T 18% 11% 9% 7% 6% 6% 5% 5% 4% % of dissociated inactive form Already 20% of phosphorique makes less 10% of lactique inactive OPCL = 50% compromise with % efficiency and pH reduction (protein digestibility)

  24. Consequences • Organic acids such as Formic acid and lactic are the more efficient to have a bactericid effect Formic Lactic In same quantities, Formic as a smaller molecular weight so can bring more acid per kg But as a smaller molecula, its absorption is also quicker in the stomach

  25. Consequences • Organic acids associations such as Phosphoric/Lactic are as efficient to have a bactericid effect Formic Phosphoric Lactic


  27. Physiology of poultry digestive tract Cæcum Colon-Rectum Jejunum pH 6.5-7 Ileum pH 7 – 7.5 Crop pH 5.5 Cæcum pH 6.9 Cloaca pH 8 Foie pH: Normal pH in digestive tract Proventriculus pH 2.5 – 3.5 Duodenum pH 5 - 6 Gizzard pH 1.5 – 3.5 Pancreas • Bacterial flora is highly developped all along the digestive tract • Acidification naturally exists in the first part of the digestive tract • Antibiotics growth promotors are used to control this flora

  28. Physiology of poultry digestive tract Mouth Feed are almost no fragmentated Ptyaline* action begins and continu in crop (Surdeau et Hénaff, 1979) * Ptyaline: enzyme (amylase) degrades starch

  29. Physiology of poultry digestive tract Crop Natural presence of 8.710/g Lactobacilles pH 4,5 – 6,5 Important production of mucus to humidify feed Feed reserve playing important role in feed ingestion Emptying of crop is regulated by particule size and quantity (quicker for meal) pH variation is related to feed quantity. pH reduction is due only to fermentation because there are no acidic secretion The flora is composed mainly of lactobacille (Gabriel Irène et al, JRA 2003) that are responsible for lactic fermentations (Wielen et al, 2000)

  30. In the crop, no acid secretion Acidifier allows to accelerate the pHJ reduction and favorise the development of lactobacille flora and is detrrimental for salmonella or other pathogen development Acidification interest The vertical transmission of salmonellas and formic acid treatment of chicken feed. A possible strategy for control.Humphrey TJ, Lanning DG.Public Health Laboratory, Heavitree, Exeter, UK.The treatment of feed given to laying hens with 0.5% formic acid reduced significantly the isolation rate of salmonellas and was associated with a reduction in the incidence of infection in newly hatched chicks. These improvements were not sustained until slaughter, however, as growing birds acquired salmonellas, probably from feed which was not acid treated. The data indicate that formic acid treatment of chicken food could have important benefits for the public health Epidemiol Infect. 1988 Feb;100(1):43-9.

  31. Physiology of poultry digestive tract Proventriculus Proventriculeus pH 1,5 – 4,5 Secrete high amount of hydrochloric acid pH arounnd-pH 1,5 – 4,5- Pepsinogene transformation in pepsine is not complete Proteolyse only begins Content stays for 10 to 60 mn before entering in the gizzard

  32. Physiology of poultry digestive tract Gizzard Gizzard pH 1,5 – 3 pH is low - pH 1,5 à 3 Proteolys is important under pepsine action Mecanical activity og gizzard is important, but lower for meal feed The low pH allows to solubilize minerals (layer must solubilose 7 to 8 g of calcium carbonate per day)

  33. Physiology of poultry digestive tract Duodenum Duodenum pH 6 – 7 Junction between gizzard and duodenum is recovered by a mucis to protect from high acidity Increase pH content to 6 – 7 by endogenous secretion of sodium bicarbonate Bacterial growth is controled by the growth of high amount of enzymes, bile salts (antibacterial) and oxygen.

  34. Physiology of poultry digestive tract Jejunum and ileum Jejunum and ileum pH 6,5 – 7,5 Place of chemical digestion by intestinal and pancreatic enzymes Villositary absorption of nutriments, water and minerals Digestive flora can be located in the lumen or attached in the intestinal mucus

  35. Physiology of poultry digestive tract Intestinal villosities Digestive flora depends of nutriments, transit speed presence or not of pathogen bacteria

  36. Physiology of poultry digestive tract Caecas pH 6,5 – 7,5 Presence of more 1010 anaerobes Caecal contents are renewd 1 to 2 times per day Urina is deversed to produce feces Place of bacterial fermentation, riche on anaerobic bacteria, producing AGV, acetic, propionic, butyric, formic (Mead, 2000) Those organic acid have antibacterial effects (Vielen et al, 2000) Poultry bacterial flora is stable at 2 weeks of age at intestinal level. It is required 4 to 6 weeks for the caecal flora to stabilise (Gabriel Irène et al, Inra 2003)


  38. Globacid LFPA : Salmonella inhibitor in feed Marivi Gnilo Colle : BS-Thesis at UPLB - April 2000 pH= 7 / moisture =12%

  39. Log (cfu/gr) Hours Globacid LFPA-60 : : anti-Salmonella activity in relation to feed pH Marivi Gnilo Colle : BS-Thesis at UPLB - April 2000 moisture =12 %

  40. Globacid LFPA : anti-Salmonella activity in relation to feed moisture content Mark Kristoffer Ungos Pasayan : BS-Thesis at UPLB - April 2000 pH= 6

  41. Mortality after contact with infected chicken by Salmonella gallinarum Lactic acid effect on crop pH and salmonella control Avila et al, 2003 Berchieri and Barrow, 1996 • Organic acid helps to control pathogen bacteria, and patholgy incidences

  42. Comparison of some growth promoters in turkey feed AFSAA trial • Organic acid can provide similar zootechnical performance as antibiotics growth promoters

  43. Comparison of some growth promoters in turkey feed AFSAA trial Litter dry matter • Organic acids highly improves litter quality • Constant in most of the acidified feeds

  44. Egg weight improvement Layers hen (repro) 2 buildings of 6000 animals (1 control, 1 acidifier)

  45. % Rejected eggs Layers hen (repro) 2 buildings of 6000 animals (1 control, 1 acidifier)

  46. Layer - Japan Number of eggs + 6,8 % Broken eggs - 64 % FC - 8 % Feces weight - 11,7 % Moisture feces - 3 % Performance index + 6 %

  47. TOTAL BACTERIAL CONTROL PROGRAM • In the first part : Globacid = acidification action • In second part of the digestive tract : Globamax = Calcium Butyrate Action • All along the intestine for strong antisalmonella treatment : Globatan Globamax Globacid Globatan • Wide action all along the digestive tract