SS7H2dExplain U.S. presence and interest in Southwest Asia; include the Persian Gulf conflict and invasions of Afghanistan and Iraq. Concepts: Conflict Creates Change Conflict Resolution
SS7H2dESSENTIAL QUESTIONWhy is the United States interested in what’s going on in the Middle East? Concept: Conflict Creates Change
Operation Iraqi Freedom Persian Gulf War Saddam Hussein Autocratic Democratic Taliban Al Qaeda Insurgents Vocabulary Words To Know
SADDAM HUSSEIN • former dictator of Iraq; removed from power by U.S. forces during Operation Iraqi Freedom; invaded Kuwait in the early 1990s-resulted in the Persian Gulf War
AUTOCRATIC • government in which one person possesses unlimited power and the citizen has little if any role in the government. (like a dictatorship or even a monarchy)
PERSIAN GULF WAR • 1991 war between the U.S. and Iraq; ended with Iraqi withdrawal from Kuwait
Who was involved? What happened? Where did it take place? When was this war? Why was the United States involved? What do you already know about the Persian Gulf War?
The following were events of the Persian Gulf War. • Saddam Hussein’s Iraqi army invades Kuwait for its oil. • International armed forces led by the United States attack Iraq. • Iraq surrenders and leaves Kuwait.
EFFECTS OF PERSIAN GULF WAR • Overwhelming Coalition victory • Liberation of Kuwait • Heavy Iraqi casualties and destruction of Iraqi and Kuwaiti infrastructure • Internal rising against Saddam Hussein brutally suppressed • Establishment of US military presence in Saudi Arabia (would later upset terrorist Osama bin Laden) • UN sanctions against Iraq
AL QAEDA • After the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, al-Qaeda (pronounced al-KYE-da) surpassed Hamas and Hezbollah as the world's most infamous terrorist organization. Al-Qaeda—"the base" in Arabic—is the network of Muslim extremists organized by Osama bin Laden. -www.infoplease.com
TALIBAN • The Taliban ("Students of Islamic Knowledge Movement") ruled Afghanistan from 1996 until 2001. They came to power during Afghanistan's long civil war. Although they managed to hold 90% of the country's territory, their policies—including their treatment of women and support of terrorists—ostracized them from the world community. The Taliban was ousted from power in December 2001 by the U.S. military and Afghani opposition forces in response to the September 11, 2001, terrorist attack on the U.S. - www.infoplease.com
INVASION OF AFGHANISTAN • After 9-11-2001 attack on the World Trade Centers in New York City - U.S. President Bush invades Afghanistan “to root out Terrorism” • The stated purpose of the invasion was to capture Osama bin Laden, destroy al-Qaeda, and remove the Taliban regime which had provided support and safe harbor to al-Qaeda.
All of the following are reasons for the United States invading the country of Afghanistan in 2001. • U.S. wanted to punish and remove the Taliban regime for supporting al-Qaeda terrorists. • U.S. begins campaign known as the War on Terrorism after responding to 9/11 terrorist attacks. • U.S. attempts to capture terrorist mastermind Osama bin Laden.
OPERATION IRAQI FREEDOM • invasion of Iraq by the U.S. forces in 2003; Iraq was thought to possess weapons of mass destruction
DEMOCRATIC • a government in which the supreme power is vested in the people an exercised by them directly or indirectly through a system of representation usually involving periodically held free elections.
IRAQI INSURGENTS • The Iraqi insurgency or Resistance is composed of diverse mix of militias, foreign fighters using violent measures against the US-led Coalition in Iraq and the post-2003 Iraqi government. -www.wikipedia.com
Invasion of Iraq causes: • U.S. military intelligence indicated Saddam Hussein supported the Al Qaeda terrorist organization and was producing weapons of mass destruction. • The invasion launched the Iraq War • U.S. President George W. Bush wanted to: " disarm Iraq of weapons of mass destruction; end Saddam Hussein's support for terrorism; to free the Iraqi people”
After the capture of Saddam Hussein - the people of Iraq had to change their government. The US had an interest in promoting democracy in the Middle East. Iraq is now a democratic government today... But why is there still fighting 5 years later? Saddam IN Power Saddam OUT of Power The world’s most ruthless dictator is no longer in power
The United States is trying to keep the peace in Iraq – which is currently in a civil war. Sunni Muslims (minority group in Iraq) do not want the Shia Muslims (majority group) to control the government – which leads to violence. US Involvement in Iraq Today
SS7H2dESSENTIAL QUESTIONAGAINWhy is the United States interested in what’s going on in the Middle East? Concept: Conflict Creates Change