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Information Systems for Competitive Advantage

Information Systems for Competitive Advantage

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Information Systems for Competitive Advantage

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  1. Information Systems for Competitive Advantage Chapter 9

  2. six major roles and goals of IT • 1. Increase employee productivity by reducing time, errors and costs using • 2. Enhance decision making • 3. Improve team collaboration • 4. Create business partnerships and alliances • 5. Enable global reach all over the world taking into consideration the culture of each nation or society. • 6. Facilitate organizational transformation as the organization evolves and responds to the ever-changing marketplace.

  3. Ages of Progress Informational Industrial Agricultural (1960’s to Present) (1890’s to 1960’s) (Prior to 1890’s)

  4. Information Age Terms ______________ ______________ Knowing how to use a computer to gather, store, organize, and otherwise process information. These are desirable and even required for many occupations today ______________ ______________ The gap developing in society between those that are computer literate and have access to computers and those that don’t and how it will affect them ______________ ______________ The issues and standards of conduct as they pertain to the use of information systems including information privacy, accuracy, property, and accessibility

  5. Computer Ethics Concerns

  6. Paying for Privacy Information Privacy and Issues ______________ ______________ What information an individual must reveal to others in the course of gaining employment or shopping online • ______________ ______________ • The stealing of another person’s private information (SIN, credit card numbers, etc.) for the purpose of using it to gain credit, borrow money, buy merchandise, or otherwise run up debt that are never paid. This is especially problematic because it: • is______________ to the victim, they don’t know it is happening • is very ______________ correct…credit agencies are involved • can cause ______________ and legal costs

  7. Information Privacy - How to Maintain Choose ______________ monitored by independent organizations Use rating sites to identify merchant sites whose privacy policies conform to standards and are monitored (e.g epubliceye.com) Avoid having ______________left on your machine Use settings in your browser to block cookies from being deposited on your machine by primary and third parties Visit sites ______________ Use online privacy services that provide total privacy by blocking all techniques used to identify you online (e.g. Anonymizer) Use caution when ______________ confirmation email Use a separate e-mail account from normal to protect information from your employer, sellers, and any one using your computer

  8. Information Accuracy ______________ ______________ Concerned with assuring the authenticity and fidelity of information, and identifying those responsible for information errors that harm people • Sources of information error • Errors in computer output can come from two primary sources. These are: • ______________ Errors – errors in the computer program logic, communication and/or processing that receives, processes, stores, and presents information • ______________ Errors– errors by the person(s) entering data or information into the computer system

  9. Information Property ______________ ______________ Concerned with who owns information about individuals and how information can be sold and exchanged ______________ ______________ The organization storing the information owns it if it is given willingly…even if unknowingly by use of their sites (e.g. online surveys, credit card transactions, etc.) • ______________ ______________ • Are stated policies from the organizations collecting the information and how they intend to use it. These are legally binding statements • ______________ Use – used within the organization only • ______________ Use– can be sold to outside parties

  10. Information Property – Gathering and Uses From Subject Received Size 1(484)993-7152 Hollie ****SPAM**** Fw: Re: GET YOURU NIVERSITY{} DIPLOMA 6/19/2007 9 KB • ______________ • This unsolicited e-mail can come from reputable sites selling your information. Possible problems from spam include: • ______________in attachments or links • Added to other spam lists by responding • Slowssystems by taking up resources, disk space • ______________ • These files stored on a computer do have legitimate uses but they also can: • Store and transmit information about online habits including, sites visited, purchases made, etc. • ______________ accessingsites when cookies are refused • ______________ and combine information with other information to build a personal profile to be sold

  11. Information Property – Gathering and Uses ______________ These ______________ computer ______________ are installed and then collect information about individuals without their knowledge. Currently this technology is not illegal • ______________ ______________ • Spyware applications collect and transmit, or use, this information locally in several ways, including: • ______________ of information to online marketers (spammers) • Illegal uses such as identity theft • ______________ user experience to market to the user by presenting ad banners, pop-ups, etc. (Adware)

  12. Information Accessibility ______________ ______________ Concerned with defining what information a person or organization has the right to obtain about others and how that information is used • Who has access? • Besides personal access, other parties have the legal right to access and view private information including: • ______________– using advanced software packages (e.g Carnivore), e-mail traffic and all online activity can be monitored in real-time or after the fact • ______________– they can legally limit, monitor or access activities on company-owned computers or networks as long as policy has been distributed to employees

  13. Information Access – Example of Carnivore

  14. The Need for ______________Behaviour • ______________ ______________ • Illegal versus unethical behaviour is an information age concern. Though activities are not explicitly illegal, questions exist of whether they are unethical, such as: • ______________ manipulation/modification– in this circumstance, the photograph not longer reflects absolute reality • ______________ use of computers – at work or at school, “stealing time” for personal business or use • ______________ ______________ – by companies compiling information to sell for profit

  15. Pirates Responsible Computer Use ______________ In area of ethics, we rely on guidelines to guide behaviour. These guidelines can come from many organizations • The Computer Ethics Institute developed these guidelines for ethical computer use that prohibit the following behaviors: • Using a computer to ______________others • Interfering with other ______________ computer work • Snooping in other people’s files • Using a computer to ______________ • Using a ______________to bear false witness • Copying or using proprietary software without paying for it • Using other people’s computer resources without authorization or compensation • Appropriating other people’s ______________output

  16. Computer Crimes • ______________ ______________ • The act of using a computer to commit an illegal act. The broad definition of computer crime can include the following: • Targeting a computer while committing an offense • Using a computer to ______________ and offense • Using computers to support criminal ______________

  17. Computer Crime – ______________ Access ______________ Access A person gaining entry to a computer system for which they have no authority to use such access THIS IS A COMPUTER CRIME! ____come from inside the organization (employees)

  18. Computer Crime – Various Types 1st Half

  19. Computer Crime – Various Types 2nd Half

  20. Phishing Computer Crimes - ______________and ______________ ______________ A term to describe ______________ access to computers based entirely on a curiosityto learn as much as possible about computers. ______________ A term to describe those who break into computer systems with the intention of doing ______________or committing ______________ This term was created because of protests by true hackers

  21. Computer Crime – ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ This practice of buying one copy and making multiple copies for personal and commercial use, or for resale is illegal in most countries while others offer weak or nonexistent protections. This has become and international problem as shown below

  22. Destructive Code that Replicates • Viruses • These programs disrupt the normal function of a computer system through harmless pranks or by destroying files on the infected computer. They come in several types: • ______________ Sector • ______________ Infector– • Combination – • Attachment ______________ This destructive code also replicates and spreads through networked computers but does damage by clogging upmemory to slow the computerversus destroying files

  23. Computer Crimes – Destructive Code

  24. Destructive Code that Doesn’t Replicates ______________ ______________ These programsdo not replicate but can do ______________ as they run hidden programs on the infected computer that appears to be running ______________ (i.e. a game program that creates an account on the unsuspecting user’s computer for unauthorized access) • ______________ ______________ • A variation of a Trojan Horse that also do not replicate and are hidden but are designed to lie in wait for a triggering operation. (i.e. a disgruntled employee that sets a program to go off after they leave the company) • ______________Bombs – are set off by dates (e.g. a birthday) • ______________ Bombs– are set off by certain operations (e.g. a certain password)

  25. ______________and ______________ • ______________ • The use of ______________ and networking technologies against persons or property to intimidate or coerce governments, civilians, or any ______________ of society in order to attain ______________ religious, or ideological goals • ______________ • An organized attempt by a country’s ______________ to disrupt or ______________the information and communications systems of another country.