A Sheltered Approach to Sheltered Instruction Deficits to Assets Center for the Education & Study of Diverse Populations at New Mexico Highlands University
What are we going to do? • Greater Awareness of Assumptions & Realities (Self & Others) • Poverty • Language Acquisition • Planning for the Language Demands of Our Content
How are we going to do it? • We will participate in group dialogues to question our awareness and assumptions about ourselves and others. • We will recall and share our past experiences and readings specific to the day’s conversation. • We will organize our thoughts and ideas in order to support our ability to actively share with others on the various topics presented today. • We will negotiate meaning in both large and small groups.
Assumptions • Who are we as people … as educators? • How do we perceive others? • How do you perceive me?
Being a Culturally Competent Educator • As a culturally proficient educator/administrator, you must accommodate for both culture and language. • It means being aware of your own learning style and the learning styles of your students. • It also means being aware of your own culture and the effects your culture has on children in your classroom.
Being a Culturally Competent Educator • It’s a way of being, an attitude, or behavior that incorporates who you are, what you bring into the classroom, and how you interact with the culture of your students.
Assessing Culture: Naming the Differences • Consider your own culture and the cultural norms of your organization • Understand how the culture of your organization impacts those whose culture is different • Recognize how culture affects others
Valuing Diversity: Claiming the Differences • Recognize difference as diversity, rather than as inappropriate responses to the environment • Accept that each culture considers some values and behaviors more important than others • Seek opportunities to work with and learn from people who differ from you
Managing the Dynamics of Difference: Reframing the Differences • Understand the effect of historic distrust on present-day interactions • Realize that you may misjudge another’s actions based on your own learned expectations • Learn effective ways to resolve conflicts among people whose culture and values may differ from yours
Adapting to Diversity: Training About Differences • Change the way you have done things to acknowledge the differences present among staff members, clients, and community members • Align programs and practices with the guiding principles of cultural proficiency • Institutionalize appropriate interventions for conflicts and confusion caused by the dynamics of difference
Institutionalizing Cultural Knowledge: Changing for Differences • Incorporate cultural knowledge into the mainstream of the organization • Develop skills for cross-cultural communication • Integrate into the organization’s systems information and skills that enable you to interact effectively in a variety of cultural situations
Remember….becoming a culturally proficient educator means… • Being aware of your own learning style and learning styles of your students; • Being aware of your own culture and the effects your culture has on children in your classroom; • A way of being, an attitude, or behavior that incorporates who you are, what you bring into the classroom, and how you interact with the culture of your students.
Alfred Tatum University of Illinois, Chicago Center for the Education & Study of Diverse Populations at New Mexico Highlands University
Poverty Center for the Education & Study of Diverse Populations at New Mexico Highlands University
Some Data • The Census Bureau reports that New Mexico ranks fifth nationally for the percentage of children living in poverty. • Mississippi was the highest at 31 percent.
Some More Data • The agency's American Community Survey found that slightly more than 25 percent of children under 18 in New Mexico were below the federal poverty level in 2009. • That's an increase of about 1 percent from 2008.
Poverty • Assumptions • Realities
Poverty (Assumptions) • Why? • Who? • How long? (Situational vs. Generational) • Impact on learning?
Poverty (Some Realities)How well do we know Eagle Ridge? Percent Free/Reduced Meals: 59.2 %
Poverty (Some Realities) • Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs http://honolulu.hawaii.edu/intranet/committees/FacDevCom/guidebk/teachtip/maslow.htm • Needs for Self-Actualization • Needs for Esteem • Needs of Love, Affection and Belongingness • Safety Needs • Physiological Needs
Poverty (Some Realities) • Some of the factors related to poverty that may place a child at-risk for academic failure are: • very young, single or low educational level parents; • unemployment; • abuse and neglect; • substance abuse;
Poverty (Some Realities) • dangerous neighborhoods; • homelessness; • mobility; and • exposure to inadequate, inappropriate or no formal educational experiences.
Some Consequences of These Factors • Delay in language development, • Delay in reading development, • “Downshifting”, • Aggression, • Violence,
Some Consequences of These Factors • Social withdrawal, • Substance abuse, • Irregular attendance, and • Depression /Craving for Attention.
Positive Assumptions • All Parents & Families Love Their Children • All Children Can & Will Learn (Have Strengths) • All Families Want a Positive School Experience for Their Children • Recognize Schools & Homes Have Shared Goals Refer to handout: “Examining Assumptions About Family”
Positivism Applied • We need to make them feel that they are lovable, important and acceptable human beings by making them feel secure and good about themselves and by building trusting respectful relationships with them (Bassey, 1996). • Positive and respectful relationships of this nature are essential for at-risk students (Hixson and Tinsmann, 1990; Ciaccio, 2000).
Positivism Applied • Educators also need to work to foster resilience in children, focusing on the traits, coping skills, and supports that help children survive in a challenging environment.
ElizbethBirr Moje University of Michigan Center for the Education & Study of Diverse Populations at New Mexico Highlands University
Language Acquisition101 • How did you learn language? • How did your children learn language? • 2nd Language?
Academic Language and Thinking Center for the Education and Study of Diverse Populations at New Mexico Highlands University
Overview • What is Academic Language and Thinking? • Why should students engage in purposeful, focused and extended academic talk? • What are key features of academic language and academic conversations? • How can we support academic language and thinking?
Academic Language and Thinking?(3 min.) • What is academic language and • thinking? • What does academic language and thinking “look like” and “sound like”?
Defining Academic Language and Thinking: What the Researchers Say Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency (CALP): CALP is the language students are exposed to during content lessons, in course materials, textbooks, and standardized assessments. Cummins suggests that it generally takes an ELL student up to 2 years to acquire BICS and 5-7 years to acquire the linguistic skills associated with CALP (Cummins 1981). Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL 2007) define academic language as, “Language used in the learning of academic subject matter in formal schooling context; aspects of language strongly associated with literacy and academic achievement, including specific academic terms or technical language, and speech registers related to each field of study”.
Defining Academic Language and Thinking: What the Researchers Say • Zwiers (2005) defines academic language as, “…the set of words and phrases that describe content-area knowledge and procedures; language that expresses complex thinking processes and abstract concepts; and language that creates cohesion and clarity in written and oral discourse”. • Scarcella (2008) defines academic language as the language of power. Students who do not acquire academic language fail in academic settings.
“Brick and Mortar”Dutro and Moran, 2003 • "Brick"words are the vocabulary specific to the content and concepts being taught and include words such as: government, mitosis, metaphor, revolt, arid, revolution, etc…. • "Mortar"words are the words that determine the relationships between and among words.
Content vocabulary(bricks) What is Academic Language? Terms that travel across disciplines Grammar & organization Content vocabulary(bricks)
Content vocabulary(bricks) What is Academic Language? Hypothesize Evidence Analyze Justify CritiqueCompare Terms that travel across disciplines Grammar & organization Content vocabulary(bricks)
Content vocabulary(bricks) What is Academic Language? Hypothesize Evidence Analyze Justify CritiqueCompare Terms that travel across disciplines Grammar & organization Content vocabulary(bricks) AcademicMetaphors ~300/hour! (Pollio, 1977)
Content vocabulary(bricks) What is Academic Language? Hypothesize Evidence Analyze Justify CritiqueCompare Text structure Transitions Pronouns ClausesWord orderU-turn termsPunctuation Terms that travel across disciplines Grammar & organization Content vocabulary(bricks) AcademicMetaphors ~300/hour! (Pollio, 1977)
Students need chances to authentically talk about: Abstract concepts Higher-order thinking processes Complex ideas
Watching for Academic Language By the 1880's, steam power had dramatically shortened the journey to America. Immigrants poured in from around the world. They came from the Middle East, the Mediterranean, Southern and Eastern Europe, and down from Canada. The door was wide open for Europeans. In the 1880s alone, 9% of the total population of Norway emigrated to America. After 1892 nearly all immigrants came in through the newly opened Ellis Island. Families often immigrated together during this era, although young men frequently came first to find work. Some of these then sent for their wives, children, and siblings; others returned to their families in Europe with their saved wages.
3 Ingredients for Acquiring Language VisualsGesturesVerbal Input
3 Ingredients for Acquiring Language VisualsGesturesVerbal Input Output
3 Ingredients for Acquiring Language VisualsGesturesVerbal Input Output Sentence stemsPair-shares PresentationsImprovs (pro-con) Questions (build)