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Evolution A Short Biography of Life a play PowerPoint Presentation
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Evolution A Short Biography of Life a play

Evolution A Short Biography of Life a play

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Evolution A Short Biography of Life a play

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  1. Evolution A Short Biography of Life a play

  2. Time

  3. Age of the universe: 13.72 ± 0.12 billion years Age of solar system: 4.54 ± 0.45 billion years Age of earth: ~4 billion years Age of life: ~3.5 billion years Age of eukaryotes: ~1.8 billion years Age of multicellulars: ~1.2 billion years Age of chordates: 500-550 million years Age of mammals: ~240 million years Age of placentals: ~130 million years Age of primates: ~60 million years Age of apes: ~30 million years Age of genus Homo: ~2.5 million years Age of Homo sapiens: ~150,000 years Written history: ~5,000 years

  4. 23:52 PM

  5. Stage

  6. Antonio Snider-Pellegrini. 1858. La Création et ses mystères dévoilés ("Creation and its Mysteries Unveiled")

  7. Bullard’s fit (by computer) Edward Bullard Bullard E, Everett JE, Smith AG. 1965. The fit of the continents around the Atlantic. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London 258A: 41-51.

  8. Alfred Lothar Wegener (1880-1930) Die Entstehung der Kontinente und Ozeane[The origin of continents and oceans], 1915.

  9. Continental drift

  10. Paleontological Evidence

  11. plants don’t swim!

  12. slow process

  13. separartions

  14. collisions

  15. 94 million years ago to present

  16. Present to 250 million years into the future

  17. Do not buy waterfront real estate in Texas!

  18. Magnetic north pole

  19. Cast

  20. Estimated Numbers of Described Extant Species (Lecointre and Guyader 2001)* ____________________________________________________________________________________________ Taxon Common Name Number of described species Percentage of total (%) ____________________________________________________________________________________________ Bacteria true bacteria 9021 0.5 Archaea archaebacteria 259 0.01 Bryophyta mosses 15000 0.9 Lycopodiophyta clubmosses 1275 0.07 Filicophyta ferns 9500 0.5 Coniferophyta conifers 601 0.03 Magnoliophyta flowering plants 233885 13.4 Fungi fungi 100800 5.8 "Porifera" sponges 10000 0.6 Cnidaria cnidarians 9000 0.5 Rotifera rotifers 1800 0.1 Platyhelminthes flatworms 13780 0.8 Mollusca mollusks 117495 6.7 Annelida annelid worms 14360 0.8 Nematoda nematodes 20000 1.1 Arachnida arachnids 74445 4.3 Crustacea crustaceans 38839 2.2 Insecta insects 827875 47.4 Echinodermata echinoderms 6000 0.3 Chondrichthyes cartilaginous fishes 846 0.05 Actinopterygii ray-finned bony fishes 23712 1.4 Lissamphibia amphibians 4975 0.3 Mammalia mammals 4496 0.3 Chelonia turtles 290 0.02 Squamata lizards and snakes 6850 0.4 Aves birds 9672 0.6 Other 193075 11.0 ____________________________________________________________________________________________ *The total number of described species is assumed to be 1,747,851. This figure, and the numbers of species for taxa are taken from LeCointre and Guyader (2001) and Cracraft (2002). Lecointre, G. and H. Le Guyader. (2001). Classification phylogenetique du vivant. Paris, France: Belin. Cracraft, C. (2002). The seven great questions of systematic biology: an essential foundation for conservation and the sustainable use of biodiversity. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 89, 127-144.

  21. About right… Vertebrates 50,841 Flowering Plants 233,885

  22. Slight underestimates… Arthropods 941,159 Fungi 100,800 ~3,000,000-30,000,000 species

  23. Huge underestimates… Bacteria 9,021 Archaea 259 ?

  24. Total number of described species: 1,747,851 Estimated range of total number of species in the world: 3,600,000 to 117,700,000 Erwin TL. 1982. Tropical forests: Their richness in Coleoptera and other arthropod species. The Coleopterist Bulletin 36(1): 74-75. Lecointre G & Le Guyader H. 2001. Classification phylogenetique du vivant. Belin: Paris. Cracraft C. 2002. The seven great questions of systematic biology: an essential foundation for conservation and the sustainable use of biodiversity. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 89:127-144.

  25. Known knowns & Known unknowns “There are known knowns. These are things we know that we know. There are known unknowns. That is to say, there are things that we know we don't know. But there are also unknown unknowns. There are things we don't know we don't know.” Donald Rumsfeld

  26. ~30% of all animals are beetles There is a story, possibly apocryphal, of the distinguished British biologist, J. B. S. Haldane, who found himself in the company of a group of theologians. On being asked what one could conclude as to the nature of the Creator from a study of his creation, Haldane is said to have answered, “An inordinate fondness for beetles.” Hutchinson,G. E. 1959. Homage to Santa Rosalia or Why are there so many kinds of animals? Am. Nat. 93:145-159.

  27. Allocation of money and scientific effort in the study of eukaryotes

  28. Exits

  29. Background Extinctions

  30. Mass Extinctions

  31. K/T event

  32. K/T event

  33. Periodicity?