What is Summarizing? • Summarizing is finding the key ideas and supporting details to get the “gist” of a piece of writing. • Skilled readers distill what is important -- based on the purpose of reading -- to understand and recall the text.
Three Key Elements of Summarizing • Provide an overview or topic statement. • Include key details. • Leave out irrelevant or unimportant details.
How is Summarizing Important? • Aids students in processing information and focusing in on the key ideas. • Helps students see how ideas fit together to form a coherent whole. • Provides students with a means for presenting their ideas in ways that others can understand.
How Does Summarizing Help Students? • Encourages your students to get used to looking for key ideas in the text as they read. This is a key element of comprehension. • Helps students connect key ideas to sense or meaning. Summarizing helps them absorb the ideas in the text. • Selecting key vocabulary words from the text helps your students expand their word knowledge. • Supports students in both comprehending and remembering information.
How Can I Prepare Students to Use This Practice? • Provide clear explanations about what summarizing is and how it can help students in all subjects. • Share real examples of how students use summarizing every day. • Offer strategies and tools to help students with summarizing, including digital tools. • Give students lots of opportunities to practice summarizing many types of texts, both online and in print.
Discussion Questions 1 • What types of problems do your struggling readers encounter when they are asked to summarize literature or informational texts? • Which Common Core State Standards focus on summarizing? • Which specific features of digital text could support students' ability to summarize?
Use of Evidence-Based Practices • Provide Clear Explanations • Give Students Strategies and Models • Provide Opportunities for Practice
Differentiated Instruction • Plan instruction that considers students' readiness, learning needs, and interests. • Use a range of technology tools to: • engage learners at varying levels • engage learners in multiple ways. • offer students options for demonstrating understanding and mastery
Teacher-Dependent Ways to Differentiate • By Content • Different levels of reading or resource materials, reading buddies, small group instruction, curriculum compacting, multi-level computer programs and Web Quests, audio materials, etc. • By Product • Activity choice boards, tiered activities, multi-level learning center tasks, similar readiness groups, choice in group work, varied journal prompts, mixed readiness groups with targeted roles for students, etc. • By Process • Tiered products, students choose mode of presentation to demonstrate learning, independent study, varied rubrics, mentorships, interest-based investigations
Student-Dependent Ways to Differentiate • By Readiness • Options in content, topic, or theme, options in the tools needed for production, options in methods for engagement • By Profile • Consideration of gender, culture, learning styles, strengths, and weaknesses • By Interests • Identification of background knowledge/gaps in learning, vary amount of direct instruction, and practice, pace of instruction, complexity of activities, and exploration of a topic
Discussion Questions 2 • How do you explain summarizing to your students? • Do you build practice in summarizing into your ongoing reading instruction? • Over time, how could you increase the complexity of the reading materials that students have to summarize?
Activities Before Reading • Ask students to: • Review the headings and key words, as well as any pictures, graphs or maps within the text. • Use these clues to brainstorm what the text is about. • Think about what tools and strategies they'll use to help them build summaries -- note taking, highlighting, or using graphic organizers. This is a great opportunity to use digital text!
Activities During Reading • Ask students to do the following on their own, in pairs, and in groups: • Read and reread text as needed. • Use planned/selected strategies and tools for marking text and taking notes. • Pause at set intervals to jot down ideas, talk to a peer, or speak into a recording device.
Activities After Reading • Ask students to: • Collect their ideas. • Review and organize their notes. • Discuss their plans for their summaries with others. • Draft their summaries and get feedback. • Revise their summaries. • Digital tools for outlining, drafting, and sharing are great for these activities! Consider allowing students to create visual summaries as well.
Discussion Questions • How do you vary instruction if students are reading literature or informational texts? • What strategies help students to dig more deeply when they reread the text? • Which technology tools could help students after reading to draft their summaries?
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