Presidential election of 1860 • In 1860, Stephan Douglas and Abraham Lincoln ran against each other again, this time for president. • Lincoln had become well known from their debates about slavery. • This time, Lincoln won, becoming the 16th president.
Southern States secede • Lincoln received no support in the South, because they believed Lincoln wanted to end slavery. Since there were so many more people in the North, he won the election anyway. • As soon as Lincoln won the election, the South started to secede. This means the South split from the Union. They no longer wanted to be part of the United States. • Supporters of secession based their arguments on the idea of states’ rights. They had voluntarily joined the union, so they could leave when they wanted.
Confederate States of America • On December 20, 1860, South Carolina became the first state to secede. They were followed by Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas. • The eleven states that had seceded formed the Confederate States of America. • They named Jefferson Davis as president. • They wrote a new Constitution which made slavery legal.
Civil War • A civil war is a war between people of the same country. • There have been many civil wars, but one of the worst happened in America. • The American Civil War was fought to keep the South from leaving the Union. • Slavery was the major issue that separated the North from the South.
Fort Sumter was in the South, and the Union has a hard time defending the fort. • There were 23 states in the Union (North) at the beginning of the war. • There were 11 states in the Confederacy (South) at the beginning of the war.
North’s Advantages • The North had some major advantages. They had many more people and also had many more factories, which could be used to make weapons. • The Union also had many more miles of railroad tracks.
South’s Advantages • The South’s main advantage was that they were fighting at home. • This would mean that they would be closer to their supplies. • They also would fight harder because they were protecting their homes.
Abraham Lincoln • The president of the Union was Abraham Lincoln, who had been elected in 1860.
Jefferson Davis • The president of the new Confederate States of America or the Confederacy was Jefferson Davis.
Battle of Bull Run • One of the first battles of the war was the Battle of Bull Run. • The North realized after this battle that the war would not be easy and would not be over soon.
New Weapons • Many new weapons were used during the Civil War. • One of these weapons was an ironclad ship. An ironclad ship was a ship with iron plates on it to protect it from cannon fire.
Other new weapons • Deadlier cannons and bullets • More accurate rifles
Battle of Antietam • The first time the Confederacy invaded Northern territory was the Battle of Antietam. • It was also the bloodiest battle day in United States history. 23,000 men lost their lives that day. • The Union army stopped the Confederate army. This “victory” by the Union gave President Lincoln the chance to announce the abolition of slavery in the South.
Emancipation Proclamation • The Emancipation Proclamation declared that all slaves should be set free in the Confederacy. • It also allowed blacks to serve in the Union army and navy. • The South ignored the Emancipation Proclamation, but it did change to focus of the war to the issue of slavery.
Women in the Civil War • Women on both sides worked during the war. Many became nurses. The most famous nurse from the Union was Clara Barton. • She also helped organize the American Red Cross.
Battle of Gettysburg • The Battle of Gettysburg was one of the bloodiest battles of the war. • 90,000 Union soldiers fought 75,000 Confederate soldiers. • More than 50,000 men were killed or wounded in the battle.
The Union won the Battle of Gettysburg. • Many Northerners started supporting the army after this by lending them money to help pay for the war. • This was called a war bond.
Gettysburg Address • After the Battle of Gettysburg, President Lincoln went to the battlefield to dedicate a cemetery in honor of all those who had died. • Lincoln spoke for two minutes, but his speech became very famous. • It is called the Gettysburg Address.