Trustworthiness in Qualitative Research Dr. Eti Poncorini Pamungkasari, dr., MPd Public Health Department; Medical Education Unit Faculty of Medicine Universitas Sebelas Maret Surakarta
Validity Does the instrument or measurement strategy actually measure what evaluator purpots to measure?
Reliability The consistency or dependability of the instrument or measurement strategy
Rigorous qualitative studies • are more trustworthy and useful • Also attempts to provide information that is related to events
Credibility: the confidence that can be placed in the truth of the research findings • Prolonged and varied field experience • Reflexivity (field journal) • Triangulation • Member checking • Peer examination • Interview technique
Transferability: to the degree to which theresults of qualitative research can be transferred toother contexts with other respondents • Purposive sampling • Provide thick description
Dependability: “the stability of findings over time” • Audit trail • A code-recode strategy • Stepwise replication • Triangulation • peer examination or iterator comparisons
Confirmability: the degree to which theresults of an inquiry could be confirmed orcorroborated by other researchers • Audit trial • Reflexive journal • Triangulation
How to assess theoretical rigour? • Publication (peer review) • Triangulation theory
Methodological or procedural rigour • Qualitative research should provide an explicit account of how the research was conducted by the researcher • Example: how the data was collected and recorded? The method of data coding and analysis?
Interpretative rigour and inter rater reliability • To demonstrated clearly how the interpretation was achieved • Participant feedback • Citation
Evaluative rigour: ethics and politics • Obtaining ethical approval
Prolonged engagement in field or research site: the researcher’s extended time in the field improves the trust of the respondents and provides a greater understanding of participants’ culture and context • Use of peer debriefing: seek support from other professionals willing to provide scholarly guidance, such a members of academic staff, the postgraduate dissertation committee and the department.
Triangulation: the use of multiple methods • Using a combination of methods, researcher, data sources and theories • Allows the research to develop a complex picture of the phenomenon being studies
Member check: the analyzed and interpreted data is sent back to the participants for them to evaluate the interpretation made by the inquirer and to suggest changes if they are unhappy with it or because they had been misreported. • An audit trail: an examination of the inquiry process and product to validate the data, whereby a researcher accounts for all the research decisions and activities to show how the data were collected, recorded and analyzed
Stepwise replication: Stepwise replication is a qualitative research data evaluation procedure where two or more researchers analyze the same data separately and compare the results • Code-recode strategy: the researcher codingthe same data twice, giving one or two weeks’ gestation period between each coding. The results from the two codingsare compared to see if the results are the same or different
References • Rice Pl, Ezzy D, 1999. Qualitative Research Methods. Oxford University Press: South Melbourne • Golafshani, N. (2003). Understanding Reliability and Validity in Qualitative Research.The Qualitative Report, 8(4), 597-606. • Noble, H, Smith, J. Issues of validity and reliability in qualitative research. Evid Based Nurs. Vol 18 (2)