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  2. 1. Defining Education and Training

  3. Education • Education may be thought of as the presentation of general information that may or may not be used by the learner. • “Ed-u-cer-e” (ey-doo-ker-ey) Latin…that which leads out of ignorance • Anything that affects our knowledge, skills, and attitudes (SKA's)

  4. Education • The “why” in safety educates about the natural and system consequences of behavior • Primarily increases knowledge and attitudes • A process through which learners gain new understanding, acquire new skills, or change their attitudes or behaviors. 

  5. Training • Training on the other hand, is the development and delivery of information that people will actually use. • One method of education • The “how” in safety • Primarily increases knowledge and skills

  6. Training • A specialized form of education that focuses on developing or improving skills - the focus is on performance. 

  7. Training • Training and Development - Focus: identifying, assessing and, through planned learning, helping develop the key competencies (knowledge, skill, attitudes - SKA's) that enable individuals to perform current or future jobs. Skills Knowledge Attitude Education Training

  8. Training What training can do • Training is essential to every organization’s safety and health program. • The time and effort it takes to train workers is an investment that pays off in fewer accidents. • Effective training also helps inexperienced workers, who tend to have higher injury rates than experienced workers.

  9. Training What training can’t do • Training isn’t likely to help if people don’t understand it, if they are unmotivated, or if they have poor work attitudes. • Finally, no amount of training is likely to reduce risk unless it is part of a sound health and safety program.

  10. 2. Definitions

  11. Definitions • Acertifiedperson has successfully completed specialized training and that the training has been certified in writing by a professional organization. • An authorizedperson is permitted by an organization to be in a regulated area or assigned by the organization to perform a specific task or to be in a specific location.

  12. Definitions • Adesignatedperson has received extensive training in a particular task and is assigned by the organization to perform that task in specific operations. • A competent personis someone who has broad knowledge of worksite safety issues, is capable of identifying existing and predictable worksite hazards, and has management approval to control the hazards.

  13. Definitions • A qualified person is someone who, through training and professional experience, has demonstrated the ability to resolve problems relating to a specific task or process

  14. Goals and Objectives Reflect the Level of Training • Level One Training: We measure student reaction to content and presentation of training. If it’s just for fun…it’s Level One • General/Specific information and instruction • Knowledge and skills are not measured at the end of training • Write goals for students. Instructional objectives are not required

  15. Goals and Objectives Reflect the Level of Training • All you have to do is attend • Measurement focuses on student's reaction to the training session rather than learning • Measurement tools include - "smile sheet" evaluation forms • Sample goal:Be aware that personal flotation devices are used

  16. Goals and Objectives Reflect the Level of Training • Level Two Training: We measure knowledge and skills immediately after training. If it’s a “how to,” it Level Two • Describes general/specific policies, procedures, practices • Write goals and operational learning objectives for students • Knowledge and skills are measured immediately after training

  17. Goals and Objectives Reflect the Level of Training • You must "pass a test" to get signed off certificate • Measurement tools - oral/written exam, skill demonstration • This level is required for most safety training! • Sample objective: Trainees can now describe reasons for and how to wear personal flotation devices

  18. Tie Training to Natural and System Consequences • Natural consequences occur automatically in response to our behaviors/actions. We are punished or rewarded by something for what we do. If we fall down, two consequences naturally occur; we either get hurt or we don't. In safety, natural consequences refer to hurt or health as outcomes.

  19. Tie Training to Natural and System Consequences • System consequences are possible organizational responses to our behaviour/actions. We are punished or rewarded by someone forwhat we do. Various consequences may occur; someone may administer discipline, apologizes, etc.

  20. 3. Role of the Trainer

  21. Role of the Trainer • Trainers are leaders. They are not necessarily expected to be experts on all aspects of the subject being presented. They are not responsible for each person’s learning: individuals are responsible for their own learning and their own behaviour. • Safety trainers are primarily change agents.

  22. Role of the Trainer • Trainers perform many roles including: • Leader. Everyone is always both a teacher and learner. • Evaluator. Identifying the extent of the impact of a safety training program.  • Group Facilitator. Managing group discussion and group process.  

  23. Role of the Trainer • Individual Development Counselor. Helping an employee assess personal safety competencies, values, and goals.  • Instructional Writer. Preparing written learning and instructional materials. • Instructor. Presenting safety information and directing structured learning experiences. 

  24. Role of the Trainer • Program Manager. Planning, organizing, staffing, controlling safety training and development operations/projects.  • Marketer. Selling safety training and development viewpoints, programs, and services.  • Media Specialist. Producing audio-visual materials for safety training. 

  25. Role of the Trainer • Needs Analyst. Defining gaps between ideal and actual safety performance and specifying the cause of the gaps.  • Program Administrator. Ensuring that the facilities, equipment, materials, participants are present and that program logistics run smoothly. 

  26. Role of the Trainer • Program Designer. Preparing objectives, defining content, and selecting and sequencing activities for a specific safety training.  • Strategist. Developing long-range plans for safety training and development.   • Task Analyst. Identifying safety-related activities to attain specific results. 

  27. Role of the Trainer • Theoretician. Developing and testing theories of learning, training, and development.  • Transfer Agent. Helping individuals apply new safety-related learning to their work.

  28. Trainer Qualifications Trainers shall: • have an appropriate level of technical knowledge, skills, or abilities in the subjects they teach. • be competent in delivery techniques and methods appropriate to adult learning.

  29. Trainer Qualifications Trainers shall: • maintain their training skills by participating in continuing education, development programs, or experience related to their subject matter expertise & delivery skills. • apply adult learning principles appropriate to the target audience and the learning objectives.

  30. Trainer as Leader and Classroom Manager • The trainer has a responsibility for providing the student with an opportunity to learn. • In this context, the trainer looks at everything that may help or hinder the learning process in the student.

  31. Trainer as Leader and Classroom Manager • For example, if the trainer puts a lot of effort into planning and designing a training program then adapts a laissez faire attitude in the classroom, the results may be less than desirable. • Thus, leadership and classroom management become as important as setting objectives, deciding on content, choosing methods, etc.

  32. Trainer as Leader and Classroom Manager • The main point to remember is that a group of students is like any other group. • It needs challenge and leadership to perform at its best. • Following is a brief checklist that trainers can use to be sure they are providing good classroom leadership:

  33. Trainer as Leader and Classroom Manager 1. Be sure your lessons are well planned. 2. Have good knowledge of the subject being taught. 3. Build your lessons on what the students already know about the subject. 4. Let the students know what you expect of them.

  34. Trainer as Leader and Classroom Manager 5. Motivate the students by telling them why they need the information being presented. 6. Stimulate interest by using a variety of methods and materials wherever possible. 7. Encourage student questions and discussion. 8. Provide students with feedback and evaluation on how they are doing.

  35. Trainer as Leader and Classroom Manager 9. Maintain a good appearance. 10. Show enthusiasm for teaching and for the subject matter.

  36. 4. Developing the Training Program

  37. Developing the Training Program • A "program" contains a written plan, policies, processes, procedures, rules, forms, reports, and possibly other documents. • In order to meet the continuing need for highly trained staff, it's important to develop a training program that includes a written plan for training new-hire and current volunteers.

  38. Developing the Training Program • The purpose of a training plan is to provide trainers with clearly written policy and guidelines for implementing an effective education and training program for employees.

  39. Developing the Training Program • The plan should contain elements that are informative and directive. • It should inform everyone about the safety training mission, policies, procedures • It should also clearly state who is responsible for carrying out the mission, policies and procedures

  40. 5. Determining if Training is Needed

  41. Determining if Training is Needed The first step in the training process is a basic one: to determine if a problem can be solved by training.

  42. Determining if Training is Needed • Whenever people are not performing their jobs properly, it is often assumed that training will bring them up to standard. • However, it is possible that other actions (such as hazard abatement) would enable employees to perform their jobs properly.

  43. Determining if Training is Needed Problems that can be addressed effectively by training include: • those that arise from lack of knowledge of a work process • unfamiliarity with equipment, or • incorrect execution of a task

  44. Determining if Training is Needed Training is less effective (but still can be used) for problems arising from: • an individual’s lack of motivation, or • lack of attention to the job Whatever its purpose, training is most effective when designed in relation to the goals of the organization’s health and safety program.

  45. Determining if Training is Needed Poor performance may not be the result of a training deficiency

  46. Determining if Training is Needed Are training or non-training interventions the solution to poor safety performance in the workplace? Describe the Safety Performance Discrepancy (The Gap) Is There a deficiency in knowledge, ability or skill? Individual does know how to accomplish the task safely. No Individual does not know how to accomplish the task safely. Training Options Yes Has the individual performed task before? Is the task accomplished often? Yes Yes No No Conduct Formal safety training Provide feedback Non-training Options Conduct practice

  47. Non-training Options Are resources adequate Is safety enforced? Is leadership adequate? Are resources inadequate? Is supervision adequate? No No No No Improve supervisor oversight Improve safety enforcement Improve safety leadership Provide resources Determining if Training is Needed

  48. 6. Identifying Training Needs

  49. Identifying Training Needs How Training Needs Arise • There are a number of triggers that may generate a training need. • If any of these are likely to affect the organization in the future or have in the near past, one or more individuals may need training.

  50. Identifying Training Needs Potential Triggers • Internal promotions or transfers • Taking on new staff • New procedures or systems • New standards • New relationships • Change of curriculum • Retirements • Increased work load • Management changes • Changed ownership