slide1 n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
인간의 삶과 역사 속의 미생물 PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
인간의 삶과 역사 속의 미생물

인간의 삶과 역사 속의 미생물

394 Vues Download Presentation
Télécharger la présentation

인간의 삶과 역사 속의 미생물

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. 인간의 삶과 역사 속의 미생물 강의자료ppt-7 2011-1학기

  2. 미생물은어떤 존재인가?

  3. 질병과 미생물

  4. 병 주는 미생물

  5. Death rate and the leading causes of death in the U.S.

  6. Death due to infectious disease

  7. Worldwide death due to:

  8. Causes of death in Africa, 2002

  9. Causes of death in the Americas.

  10. Causes of death in Korea

  11. Airborne pathogens • Aerosols are important vehicles for person-to-person transmission of many infectious diseases • Most pathogens survive poorly in air, thus, are effectively transmitted among humans only over short distances

  12. High-speed photograph of an unstifled sneeze

  13. The respiratory tract of humans

  14. Sreptococcal diseases • Streptococcus pyrogenes • Commonly found in low numbers in the upper respiratory tract of healthy individuals • Causative agent of “strep throat” • Can also cause infections of the inner ear, mammary glands, and skin • Infections occur if host defenses are weakened or a new highly virulent strain is introduced

  15. Typical lesions of impetigo (농가진[膿痂疹])

  16. Erysipelas (단독[丹毒]) : A S. Pyogenesinfection of the skin

  17. Scarlet fever (성홍열[猩紅熱])

  18. The Gram-positive pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae

  19. Corynebacteriumdiphtheriae • Diphtheria • A severe respiratory disease that typically infects children • Caused byCornyebacteriumdiphtheriae • Preventable and treatable

  20. Pseudomembrane(arrows) in active case of diphtheria

  21. Mycobacterium:tuberculosis, and Hansen’s disease • Tuberculosis is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis • Hansen’s disease (leprosy) is caused by M. leprae

  22. Mycobacterium:tuberculosis, and Hansen’s disease • Tuberculosis • An important infectious disease of humans worldwide • Incidence is increasing in part because of the emergence of drug-resistant strains • M. tuberculosis is transmitted by airborne droplets

  23. Tuberculosis X-ray An advanced case of pPulmonary tuberculosis Normal chest X-ray

  24. Mycobacterium:tuberculosis, and Hansen’s disease • Hansen’s disease (leprosy) • M. leprae is the causative agent • The armadillo is the only experimental animal (?) that has been successfully used to grow M. leprae • Most serious form is characterized by folded, bulblike lesions on the body

  25. Lepromatousleprosy lesions on the skin

  26. Mycobacterium:tuberculosis, and Hansen’s disease • Pathogenicity of M. leprae • Due to a combination of delayed hypersensitivity and the invasiveness of the organism • Transmission is by both direct contact and respiratory routes • Incubation times vary from several weeks to years • The incidence of leprosy worldwide is low

  27. Virusesand respiratory infections • Viruses are less easily controlled by chemotherapeutic methods than bacteria because the propagation of viruses depends on host cell function • The most prevalent human infections are caused by viruses • Most viral diseases are acute, self-limiting infections • A few serious viral diseases have been effectively controlled by vaccination (e.g., influenza, smallpox and rabies)

  28. Virusesand respiratory infections • Measles • Often affects susceptible children as an acute, highly infectious, often epidemic disease • Virus enters the nose and throat by airborne transmission • Used to be a common childhood illness • Over 600,000 deaths per year worldwide

  29. Measles in children Begins on the head and neck Spreads to the chest, trunk, & limbs

  30. Viral diseases and vaccines: Measles

  31. Virusesand respiratory infections • Mumps • Highly infectious • Spread by airborne droplets • Characterized by inflammation of the salivary glands

  32. Viral diseases and vaccines: Mumps

  33. Virusesand respiratory infections • Chickenpox • Common childhood disease characterized by a systemic papular rash • Caused by varicella-zoster virus (VZV), a DNA herpesvirus • VZV is highly contagious and transmitted by infectious droplets • VZV virus establishes a lifelong latent infection in nerve cells • The virus occasionally migrates to the skin surface, causing a painful skin eruption (shingles)

  34. Chickenpox

  35. Colds • Colds • The most common of infectious diseases • Viral infections transmitted via airborne droplets • Infections are usually of short duration • Symptoms milder than other respiratory diseases

  36. Colds: Common cold • Common Cold • Symptoms include rhinitis, nasal obstruction, watery nasal discharges, and malaise • Most antiviral drugs are ineffective against the common cold (but pyrazidine derivatives have shown promise for preventing colds after virus exposure) • Each cold infection induces a specific, protective immunity (but the large number of viral cold pathogens precludes complete protective immunity or vaccines)

  37. Colds: Influenza • Influenza is caused by an RNA virus of the orthomyxovirus group • There are three different types of influenza viruses (A, B, C) • Influenza A is the most important human pathogen Influenza virus

  38. Colds: Influenza • Influenza outbreaks occur annually due to the plasticity of the influenza genome • Antigenic shift • Major change in influenza virus antigen due to gene reassortment • Antigenic drift • Minor change in influenza virus antigens due to gene mutation

  39. Colds: Influenza • Influenza epidemics and pandemics occur periodically • 1957 outbreak of Asian flu • 1997 outbreak of avian influenza

  40. An influenza pandemic

  41. Avian Influenza

  42. Colds: Influenza • Prevention • Controlled by immunization • Careful worldwide surveillance • Treatment • Use of various drugs • Most effective when administered early • Aspirin should be avoided

  43. Difference Between Influenza and the Common Cold

  44. Direct contact transmission of diseases: Staphylococcus • Staphylococci cause diseases including acne, boils, pimples, impetigo, pneumonia, osteomyelitis, carditis, meningitis, and arthritis • Many diseases result from pyogenic infection or from the actions of staphylococcal superantigenexotoxins

  45. The structure and rupture of a boil The structure of a boil The rupture of a boil

  46. Direct contact transmission of diseases: Helicobacter pylori and gastric ulcers • Helicobacter pylori • A gram-negative, highly motile, spiral-shaped bacterium • Associated with gastritis, ulcers, and gastric cancers • Colonizes the non-acid-secreting mucosa of the stomach and upper intestinal tract • Transmitted via person-to-person contact or ingestion of contaminated food or water

  47. Direct contact transmission of diseases: Hepatitis viruses • Hepatitis • A liver inflammation caused by viruses or bacteria • Sometimes results in acute illness followed by destruction of functional liver anatomy and cells • A restricted group of viruses is often associated with liver disease • Hepatitis viruses are diverse HBV

  48. Hepatitis in the United States

  49. Sexually transmitted infections (STI) • Also called sexually transmitted diseases or venereal diseases • Caused by a variety of bacteria, viruses, protists, and even fungi • Pathogens are generally only found in body fluids from the genitourinary tract that are exchanged during sexual activity