Best Practices in Reading and Writing Programs:Learning from Exemplary Teachers Presented by Michael P. Ford, Ph D Professor of Reading Education College of Education and Human Services University of Wisconsin Oshkosh Oshkosh, WI USA 54901 FORD@UWOSH.EDU (920) 424-7231
In considering what is DAP… Consider Academic Content Vs Academic Method
Intellectual Vitality • Disposition vs Skill • Uncovering vs Covering • Intrinsic vs Extrinsic • Engagement vs Entertainment • Teacher vs Parent
“Why Do Some Students Fail to Learn to Read? (Cambourne 2001) • The students received faulty demonstrations of how to read and write. • The student received quality demonstrations but not engage with them. • The student has low expectations of him/herself as a reader and writer. • The student receives faulty feedback to grow stronger. • The student will not or can not take responsibility for their learning. • Any combination of the above
Allington says all educational research can be boiled down to four words.. #1 Kids Differ #2 Teachers Matter If #1 and #2 are true than differentiation is a key!
Allington says: “Why would we move toward a more rigid adherence of a one size fits all model? There is nothing as anti-scientific as a one size fits all model.”
Key Component ofEffective Reading Instruction The Teacher The key is finding the teacher who can best address those differences for the kids who happen to be his or her responsibility each year.
Teaching Struggling Readers(Lyons citing the work of Wells) “The single most important factor contributing to young children's success or failure in learning how to read and write is the teacher and the opportunities he/she provides for the children to negotiate meaning through conversation.”
All students get differentiated instruction • Instruction differs in quantity • Instruction differs in quality • The primary difference is the teacher • Even in “standardized” programs
Unfulfilled Expectations: Home and School Influences on Literacy(Snow et al, 1991)
Characteristics of High ImpactExemplary Teachers 1. Instructional Balance 2. High Density 3. Scaffolding 4. Self-regulation 5. Reading-writing Integration 6. High Expectations 7. Effective Management 8. Ability to Clearly Articulate
Characteristics of High ImpactIntermediate Literacy Programs 1. Extensive Reading 2. Diverse Grouping Patterns 3. Attention to Skills 4. Background Development 5. Writing Instruction 6. Diverse Assessments 7. Content Integration 8. Attention to Motivation
Characteristic #1Coherent and thorough integration of skillswith high-quality reading and writing experience • All used some combination but high-achievement combination was well-integrated, balanced and deliberate • Taught decoding explicitly; skilled at ongoing skill mini-lessons • Provided opportunities to engage in authentic reading and writing activities • Fluid transitions of whole to part & part to whole; dialectical process” INSTRUCTIONAL BALANCE
Dialectical Teaching Bottom Up Top Down
“What is this thing called balance?” by Jill Fitzgerald in The Reading Teacher October 1999
What is Balanced? “The teacher arranges instruction and learning opportunities so that the students can acquire or create as many kinds of content knowledge as possible.”
Characteristic #2A high density of instruction • Instruction Density = Multiple goals in one lesson • Quick thinking but also intentional • Mini-lessons inserted along the way
Intensify your Reading Aloud TITLE: AUTHOR: GENRE: SOMEBODY… WANTED… BUT… SO…
NAME DATE PARTNER’S NAME I/WE READ (Suggestions: Morning news, poem, story, a word list) How well did you stay on task? How well did you and your partner work together? How many sentences? How many words? How many vowels? How many consonants? How many capital letters? How many punctuation marks? How many ____________? What is the longest word? What is the shortest word? READ AND COUNT
WORD SCAVENGER HUNT NAME DATE PARTNER’S NAME I/WE READ (Suggestions: The morning news, a poem, a story, a word list) • Find three words that begin with _______________________. • Find three words that end with ________________________. • Find three words that _______________________________. How well did you stay on task? How well did you and your partner work together?
Variations on Picture Walks • One Minute Picture Look • Partner Predictions • I Knew/I Didn’t Know • Word Prediction
Characteristic #3Extensive Use of Scaffolding • Scaffolding = Process by where the teacher monitors student learning carefully and steps in to provide assistance on an as needed basis • Monitor student thought processes while teaching vs. lack awareness or concern • Effective questioning WE MUST TEACH STUDENTS, NOT LESSON
Instructional Cycle Informed by Assessment Assessment Practice and Application Plan Instruction Guided Practice Model
Decisions • What do assessment results tell me about each of my students? • Which target skills can I identify? • Which of my students need to work together as a group at this time? • How much time is required per group? • What resources are available for me? • How do I organize the classroom during the reading block in order to manage differentiated instruction?
Five Patterns Observed During Oral Reading • Was the reading correct? • Was the reading corrected? • Was the reading comprehended? • Was the reading attempted? • Did the reading stall?
Attempts based on Prior Experiences, Oral Language and Pictures Labeling & Commenting Storytelling Memorized Reading Attempts based on Print Denial Aspectual Imbalanced Strategies Balanced Strategies Story Book Reading Behaviors
If the Reading is Stalled Wait! Ask the reader to tell what s/he is trying to do Ask the reader to show you the hard part Focus the reader’s attention… On the sentence On the word On the word part On the letter
Guiding Reading of Multiple Texts Reaching Readers: Innovative and Flexible Strategies for Guided Reading Opitz and Ford Heinemann, 2001
Guided Reading of Multiple Texts • Group membership is narrow in range of reading development (3 levels maximum). • All students are allowed to self-select texts within their appropriate level. Leveled texts are placed in separate baskets and marked with color-coded stickers. Self-selected texts stay with student until mastery or teacher intervention. • Most texts are “familiar” through previous exposures from group introductions, peer readings and/or group discussions. Some students maybe reading new texts without previous exposure. • Time is set aside for all students to practice reading their texts. Teacher may conference with an individual during this time, but students are invited to “work out” their problems on their own. Peers can work together on texts or to assist one another. Students may read additional texts for warm up and challenge when they finish their practice.
Guiding Reading of Multiple Texts (Cont.) 5. All students come to the small group prepared to share. One student shares his/her text with the group by reading all or part of it aloud. All other students are engaged in listening to the reader they are not following along with the text. 6. Teacher takes an informal running record while the student is reading. 7. Teacher follows the reading with strategy-focused discussion based on the student’s miscues and self-corrections. The teacher starts the discussion with the reader and incorporates the other students in the discussion on a systematic basis. 8. Teacher records critical student information (words, miscues, strategies identified, strategies attempted, behavior) as discussion takes place systematically calling on all members. (Creating a grid with names on one side and space for coded anecdotal information helps to structure the discussion.)
Guiding Reading of Multiple Texts (Cont.) 9. The next student shares his/her text and the process is repeated with as many students as time allows. (During the next session of guided reading, begin with students who did not get a chance to share previously.) 10. The next session of Guided Reading begins with strategy instruction informed by previous interaction. This strategy instruction may not involve all members of the group. THINK NEEDS NOT LEVELS! 11. Encourage students to revisit texts during any independent work time. 12. Invite students to take mastered texts home to share. 13. After students have mastered three texts at one level (basically uncorrected miscues free reading) they move to the next set of leveled texts. Log titles of mastered texts. 14. As range of students widen or needs differ, groups are reformed.
Assessment Information from Each Interaction Student • Word attempted • Word stated • Strategy identified • Strategy used • Success with strategy • Cross checking strategy identified • Cross checking strategy used • Success with cross checking strategy • Other behavior(s)
Dzaldo & Peterson “Book Leveling and Readers”The Reading TeacherNovember 2005 “We seem to be in the midst of leveling mania in which massive amounts of time, money and energy are devoted to organizing books by reading levels. It appears that teachers are driven to attach a level to every text that students encounter during their school day.”
“Behind Test Scores: What Struggling Readers Really Need” by Sheila W. Valencia and Marsha Riddle Buly in The Reading Teacher (March 2004)
Preventive Instruction “The best intervention is effective instruction.” (National Research Council) Intensive Intervention Differentiated Intervention Differentiated Instruction Resources Instructional Continuum Initial Instruction Time
M T W Th F
M T W Th F
What can we learn from Exemplary Teachers? High Density + Scaffolding = Differentiation Differentiation = Key to Engagement
Characteristic #4Encouragement of Self Regulation • Encouraged students to monitor progress • Taught what to do when encountering difficulties • Promoted independence
Scaffolded Instruction Child Direct Explanation Modeling Guided Practice Teacher Independent Practice and Application Child
Gradual Release of Responsibility #1 Teacher does / Students watch #2 Teacher does / Students help #3 Teacher does / Students do #4 Students do / Teacher helps #5 Students do / Teacher assesses