Leukemia By : Nick Payne Brian Saxton Jesse Hedricks
What is cancer? • Cancer is the general name for a group of more than 100 diseases in which cells in a part of the body begin to grow out of control. • Cancer cells develop because of damage to the DNA. • DNA gets damaged by things in the environment, exposure to chemicals, viruses, tobacco smoke or too much sunlight.
Leukemia • Leukemia is the cancer of bone marrow, the soft, spongy center of the bone which produces blood cells • In most cases of leukemia, the bone marrow produces too many immature white blood cells called blasts that are abnormally shaped and cannot carry out their duties.
Types of leukemia There are many types of leukemia, four main types are: • Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) • Acute Myelogenous Leukemia (AML) • Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) • Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML)
How does it effect the body? • The regular mature leukocytes can not reproduce. • Instead, they are replaced at the end of their lives. • Leukemic cells do, however, have the ability to reproduce, but they don't have the ability to develop sufficiently to act like the normal leukocytes against infection. • With the progress of Leukemia, the leukemic cells replace the regular leukocytes. • Leukemia patient left completely vulnerable to infection.
How does it effect the cell cycle? • Normally, various cell cycle checkpoints function to halt progression into synthesis or mitotic phases until threshold level of growth signals is attained, after which cell division may proceed. • In leukemia, mutations can cause an overabundance of growth signals, or a lack of reliance on inhibition signals, so that cells divide in an unregulated manner.
General leukemia • Diagnosed 10 times more often in adults than in children. • Leading cause of death by disease in children between the ages of 1 and 14. • Accounts for about 30% of cancer cases in children aged 0-15. • Each year about 30,000 new cases of leukemia are diagnosed.
Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) • Most common type in young children. • Does effect adults. • 1,460 people will die of ALL in the next year. • 3 out of 4 of these deaths will be in adults.
Acute Myelogenous Leukemia (AML) • 12,000 new cases of leukemia each year. • Occurs in both adults and children. • Most patients will be adults. • 8,820 deaths per year (US 2008)
Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) • CLL is responsible for about 9,700 new cases of leukemia each year. • Most often, people diagnosed with the disease are older than 55. It almost never affects children. • 15,110 new cases (US 2008) • 4,390 people will die ( US 2008) • Accounts for 1-3 of all leukemia.
Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML) • 4,830 new cases of CML (US, 2008) • 450 people will die of CML (US, 2008) • CML accounts for about 10% to 15% of all leukemia. • Risk 1 in 500.
Chemotherapy • Chemotherapy is the major form of treatment for leukemia. • This treatment uses chemical agents to kill leukemia cells. • Depending on the type of leukemia one has, one may receive a single drug or a combination of one or more drugs. • These drugs may come in a pill form, or they may be injected directly into a vein.
Drug (ATRA) • Arsenic Trioxide and all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) are anti-cancer drugs that doctors can use alone. • These drugs cause leukemia cells with a specific gene mutation to mature and die.
Radiation Therapy • Uses X-rays or other high-energy rays to damage leukemia cells and stop their growth. • May be concentrated to one area, or to whole body.
Bone Marrow Transplant • Replaces leukemic bone marrow with leukemic-free marrow. • High doses of chemotherapy or radiation are used to destroy ones bone marrow. • This marrow is then replaced with other bone marrow.
Stem Cell Transplant • The SCT procedure enables physicians to give chemotherapy and radiotherapy in doses that are strong enough to eliminate leukemia cells. • The injured bone marrow then is replenished by a transplant of stem cells, which can manufacture the necessary new blood cells.
References • Leukemia Research Foundation : www.livingwithleukemia.org • Revolution Health : www.revolutionhealth.com • Leukemia & Lymphoma Society : www.leukemia-lymphoma.org • American Cancer Society : www.cancer.org • HealthAtoZ : www.healthatoz.com • Oncology Channel : www.oncologychannel.com • Mayo Clinic : www.mayoclinic.com