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fluid and electrolyte imbalances n.
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Fluid and Electrolyte Imbalances

Fluid and Electrolyte Imbalances

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Fluid and Electrolyte Imbalances

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  1. Fluid and Electrolyte Imbalances

  2. Body Fluid Compartments • 2/3 (65%) of TBW is intracellular (ICF) • 1/3 extracellular water • 25 % interstitial fluid (ISF) • 5- 8 % in plasma (IVF intravascular fluid) • 1- 2 % in transcellular fluids – CSF, intraocular fluids, serous membranes, and in GI, respiratory and urinary tracts (third space)

  3. Fluid compartments are separated by membranes that are freely permeable to water. • Movement of fluids due to: • hydrostatic pressure • osmotic pressure\ • Capillary filtration (hydrostatic) pressure • Capillary colloid osmotic pressure • Interstitial hydrostatic pressure • Tissue colloid osmotic pressure

  4. Balance • Fluid and electrolyte homeostasis is maintained in the body • Neutral balance: input = output • Positive balance: input > output • Negative balance: input < output

  5. Solutes – dissolved particles • Electrolytes – charged particles • Cations – positively charged ions • Na+, K+ , Ca++, H+ • Anions – negatively charged ions • Cl-, HCO3- , PO43- • Non-electrolytes - Uncharged • Proteins, urea, glucose, O2, CO2

  6. Body fluids are: • Electrically neutral • Osmotically maintained • Specific number of particles per volume of fluid

  7. Homeostasis maintained by: • Ion transport • Water movement • Kidney function

  8. MW (Molecular Weight) = sum of the weights of atoms in a molecule mEq (milliequivalents) = MW (in mg)/ valence mOsm (milliosmoles) = number of particles in a solution

  9. Tonicity Isotonic Hypertonic Hypotonic

  10. Cell in a hypertonic solution

  11. Cell in a hypotonic solution

  12. Movement of body fluids “ Where sodium goes, water follows.” Diffusion – movement of particles down a concentration gradient.Osmosis – diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membraneActive transport – movement of particles up a concentration gradient ; requires energy

  13. ICF to ECF – osmolality changes in ICF not rapid IVF → ISF → IVF happens constantly due to changes in fluid pressures and osmotic forces at the arterial and venous ends of capillaries

  14. Regulation of body water • ADH – antidiuretic hormone + thirst • Decreased amount of water in body • Increased amount of Na+ in the body • Increased blood osmolality • Decreased circulating blood volume • Stimulate osmoreceptors in hypothalamusADH released from posterior pituitaryIncreased thirst

  15. Result: increased water consumption increased water conservation Increased water in body, increased volume and decreased Na+ concentration

  16. Dysfunction or trauma can cause: • Decreased amount of water in body • Increased amount of Na+ in the body • Increased blood osmolality • Decreased circulating blood volume

  17. Edema is the accumulation of fluid within the interstitial spaces. Causes: increased hydrostatic pressure lowered plasma osmotic pressure increased capillary membrane permeability lymphatic channel obstruction

  18. Hydrostatic pressure increases due to: Venous obstruction: thrombophlebitis (inflammation of veins) hepatic obstruction tight clothing on extremities prolonged standing Salt or water retention congestive heart failure renal failure

  19. Decreased plasma osmotic pressure: ↓ plasma albumin (liver disease or protein malnutrition) plasma proteins lost in : glomerular diseases of kidney hemorrhage, burns, open wounds and cirrhosis of liver

  20. Increased capillary permeability: Inflammation immune responses Lymphatic channels blocked: surgical removal infection involving lymphatics lymphedema

  21. Fluid accumulation: increases distance for diffusion may impair blood flow = slower healing increased risk of infection pressure sores over bony prominences Psychological effects

  22. Edema of specific organs can be life threatening (larynx, brain, lung) Water is trapped, unavailable for metabolic processes. Can result in dehydration and shock. (severe burns)

  23. Electrolyte balance • Na + (Sodium) • 90 % of total ECF cations • 136 -145 mEq / L • Pairs with Cl- , HCO3- to neutralize charge • Low in ICF • Most important ion in regulating water balance • Important in nerve and muscle function

  24. Regulation of Sodium • Renal tubule reabsorption affected by hormones: • Aldosterone • Renin/angiotensin • Atrial Natriuretic Peptide (ANP)

  25. Potassium • Major intracellular cation • ICF conc. = 150- 160 mEq/ L • Resting membrane potential • Regulates fluid, ion balance inside cell • pH balance

  26. Regulation of Potassium • Through kidney • Aldosterone • Insulin

  27. Isotonic alterations in water balance • Occur when TBW changes are accompanied by = changes in electrolytes • Loses plasma or ECF • Isotonic fluid loss • ↓ECF volume, weight loss, dry skin and mucous membranes, ↓ urine output, and hypovolemia ( rapid heart rate, flattened neck veins, and normal or ↓ B.P. – shock)

  28. Isotonic fluid excess • Excess IV fluids • Hypersecretion of aldosterone • Effect of drugs – cortisone Get hypervolemia – weight gain, decreased hematocrit, diluted plasma proteins, distended neck veins, ↑ B.P. Can lead to edema (↑ capillary hydrostatic pressure) pulmonary edema and heart failure

  29. Electrolyte imbalances: Sodium • Hypernatremia (high levels of sodium) • Plasma Na+ > 145 mEq / L • Due to ↑ Na + or ↓ water • Water moves from ICF → ECF • Cells dehydrate

  30. Hypernatremia Due to: • Hypertonic IV soln. • Oversecretion of aldosterone • Loss of pure water • Long term sweating with chronic fever • Respiratory infection → water vapor loss • Diabetes – polyuria • Insufficient intake of water (hypodipsia)

  31. Clinical manifestationsof Hypernatremia • Thirst • Lethargy • Neurological dysfunction due to dehydration of brain cells • Decreased vascular volume

  32. Treatment of Hypernatremia • Lower serum Na+ • Isotonic salt-free IV fluid • Oral solutions preferable

  33. Hyponatremia • Overall decrease in Na+ in ECF • Two types: depletional and dilutional • Depletional Hyponatremia Na+ loss: • diuretics, chronic vomiting • Chronic diarrhea • Decreased aldosterone • Decreased Na+ intake

  34. Dilutional Hyponatremia: • Renal dysfunction with ↑ intake of hypotonic fluids • Excessive sweating→ increased thirst → intake of excessive amounts of pure water • Syndrome of Inappropriate ADH (SIADH) or oliguric renal failure, severe congestive heart failure, cirrhosis all lead to: • Impaired renal excretion of water • Hyperglycemia – attracts water

  35. Clinical manifestations of Hyponatremia • Neurological symptoms • Lethargy, headache, confusion, apprehension, depressed reflexes, seizures and coma • Muscle symptoms • Cramps, weakness, fatigue • Gastrointestinal symptoms • Nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, and diarrhea • Tx – limit water intake or discontinue meds

  36. Hypokalemia • Serum K+ < 3.5 mEq /L • Beware if diabetic • Insulin gets K+ into cell • Ketoacidosis – H+ replaces K+, which is lost in urine • β – adrenergic drugs or epinephrine

  37. Causes of Hypokalemia • Decreased intake of K+ • Increased K+ loss • Chronic diuretics • Acid/base imbalance • Trauma and stress • Increased aldosterone • Redistribution between ICF and ECF

  38. Clinical manifestations of Hypokalemia • Neuromuscular disorders • Weakness, flaccid paralysis, respiratory arrest, constipation • Dysrhythmias, appearance of U wave • Postural hypotension • Cardiac arrest • Others – table 6-5 • Treatment- • Increase K+ intake, but slowly, preferably by foods

  39. Hyperkalemia • Serum K+ > 5.5 mEq / L • Check for renal disease • Massive cellular trauma • Insulin deficiency • Addison’s disease • Potassium sparing diuretics • Decreased blood pH • Exercise causes K+ to move out of cells