Qin falls and Han begins The King is Dead… Long live the King! Slideshow from www.advancedplacementhistory.com
Why did the Qin fall? • Failed to rule with humanity • many peasant rebellions, • 3 assassination attempts, • Shi Huangdi’s death, • his son failed as a ruler • lost the Mandate of Heaven
Han Dynasty 206 B.C.E.-220 C.E. (c. 400 years) Overview The Han continued the Q’in organization and empire to build a strong but humane government, great wealth, good Confucian education for upper class men, important inventions and excellent long distance trade.
Han Politics • Liu Bang 1st Han Emperor • replaced Legalism with Confucianism • Chang’an is capital • Wu di important emperor • Confucianism teaches that Emperor is • Responsible for keeping harmony • Must model goodness and virtue • Often attacked from central Asian nomads
Chang’an Largest city in the world Carefully planned Great trade center on Silk Road Wealthy and beautiful
Confucian Civil Service Examination • Han government officials chosen by scores on a Confucian poetry and moral code test • Han started schools to train candidates • Curriculum is Confucius’s teachings, Chinese history, and Chinese law.
Han Economy • peasant life • Military service required of oldest male • a month’s labor for govt per year • textile manufacturing, • water mills • iron casting led to steel • Chinese traders were able to sail into the Indian Ocean, expanding trade tremendously. • SILK Road across Asia to Middle East connects China to Persia, India and Rome
A Timeline History of Silk production from its origins in China to its arrival in Europe. 3000 B.C. Silk first produced in China 1500 B.C. Semi-nomadic stockbreeding tribes inhabit steppes 753 B.C. Rome founded 500 B.C. Chinese adopt nomadic style, wear trousers and ride horses 551 - 479 B.C. Confucius born in China 350 B.C. Greek culture spreads into Central Asia (Persia conquered by Alexander the Great) 300 B.C. Roman expansion begins around Mediterranean region Shi Huangdi’s Qin dynasty unites entire China for the first time Qin Dynasty begins Great Wall Han dynasty overthrows the Qin and develops its vast empire Buddhism begins to spread north out of India and into China Paper first made in China 200 B.C. The Xiongnu (Huns) rise to power in Central Asia and invade Chinese western border regions Emperor WuDi orders Zhang Qian to travel the Western Regions and open the trade route (Silk Road) to the west 100 B.C. Rome becomes an empire 1 A.D. Silk first seen in Rome Buddhism begins to spread from India into Central Asia Christianity begins to spread in the world 100 A.D. Roman empire at its largest The first Roman envoy arrives in China Buddhism reaches China 200 A.D. Han dynasty falls and the China breaks up 300 A.D. The secret skill of sericulture (silk production) begins to spread west along the Silk Road Xiongnu (Huns) invades China and China further dissolved into fragments 500 A.D. Silkworm breeding appears in Europe 18.
Religion/Philosophy • Confucianism is VERY influential in govt and social life • People follow Confucian morals in all aspects of life • Buddhism came to China via the Silk Road
Han Society • Population tripled to 50 million • less land per person • Farming techniques improved • Many people moved to cities • Chinese migrated into central Asia • Government must provide peace & prosperity, & education
MEDICINE SCIENCE Wrote texts on chemistry, zoology, and botany. Astronomy popular Invented seismograph Diagnosed diseases. herbal remedies used anesthetics. Acupuncture TECHNOLOGY Paper invented (pic to right) Invented the rudder, fore/aft sails to sail into the wind fishing reels, wheelbarrows, and suspension bridges. Han Innovations
Han Great Wall • Extended the Q’in wall 1500 miles • Many more towers and soldiers to guard China
Han Art • grand temples and palaces. • jade and ivory carvings and ceramic figures. • Improved bronzeworking and silkmaking techniques. • Revival of Chinese landscape painting.
Han Warfare (FYI) • “The bandits were numerous, and Yang's forces very weak, so his men were filled with alarm and despondency. • But he organized several dozen horse-drawn vehicles carrying bellows to blow powdered lime strongly forth, he caused rags of fire to be tied to the tails of a number of horses, and he prepared other vehicles full of bowmen and crossbowmen. • The lime chariots went forward first, and as the bellows were plied the smoke was blown forwards according to the wind, then the rags were kindled and the frightened horses rushed forwards throwing the enemy lines into confusion, • after which the bowmen and crossbowmen opened fire, • the drums and gongs were sounded, • and the terrified enemy was utterly destroyed and dispersed.
Han Fall • Han rulers love for wealth and pleasure weakened the government; often corrupt and brutal. • The Han dynasty fell in A.D. 220. • Fiscal crisis (they were broke) • Raised taxes • Peasants get angry • Revolts lead to the downfall of the govt • The Huns attack over the wall • China descends into chaos and warlike states rule for 350 years
China’s Time of Troubles • 220-589 China is not unified under a single Emperor • Return of regional rule and many small regional wars