TRAIning webinarRapid Care Analysis exercises Thalia Kidder, Jane Remme and Maria Michalopoulou Tuesday October 14th 2014
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Some of the WE-Care team from Oxfam House Thalia Kidder Jane Remme Maria Michalopoulou
Purpose • Understand why the RCA was developed How is RCA used? What RCA is and isn’t... 2) Be familiar with logic & exercises • Know how to plan for RCA What do we want to achieve? Who participates?Which exercises? Where? How long? Consultants? Documentation? • Clarifyyour questions Where you need further support
Agenda • Welcome • The Basics on Care and the RCA • Questions • RCA Methodology – 7 exercises • Questions and comments • Planning and logistics for RCA – our learning • Questions and comments
“Care is critical for human well-being. We all continuously receive care, not just the weak, vulnerable. We aim for quality care of persons, and affirm the right of women and men to give and to receive care. What is care? “Care is: Meeting the material and/or developmental, emotional and spiritual needs of one or more other persons ...
What is (unpaid) Care? • Direct care of persons – feeding, dressing • Housework – cooking, clothes, shopping • Caring for people in communities • Also paid care work: childcare, cleaners • Societies provide care – a “Care Diamond”: State, • Market/employers, • NGOs, civil society and • Household /families
What is NOT Unpaid Care Work • market work (work that is paid or generates income, e.g. harvesting and selling crops; selling eggsor bread; ironing for pay) • productive work (including productive work that is unpaid, e.g. producing products (furniture), unpaid work in a family business) • non-work: sleep, personal care, entertainment, school • providing money for family’s needs (including paying for clothes, food, or childcare)
Investing in care… • Has a widespread, long-term, positive impact on wellbeing and development • Care is a ‘social good’, not a ‘burden’ • Care provision is critical to address inequality and vulnerability, both care providers and receivers • Influences productivity and economic growth
HOW to? The 4Rs Approach • Recognise* care work • Reduce difficult, inefficient tasks • Redistribute responsibility for care more equitably - from women to men, and from families to the State • Representation of carers in decision-making * “Three Rs of Unpaid Work” Prof. Diane Elson 2008
Organisational challenges “My manager and the donor aren’t convinced” “I’m funded to do something else” “I don’t know how to start” “I want to do advocacy work but I have no evidence” ? “It’s hard to show positive impact” “I have very little time or money…” “Care is a culturally sensitive, private issue” “Focus on a women’s issue in a mixed group??” “It’s a long-term, complicated process”
Principles and purpose Rapid Care Analysis (RCA) is a 1-2 day exercise with focus groups of 12-20 women and men, a first step to addressing care in development. • RCA is designed to show that ‘care’ is …. • Significant: Collects evidence of the problems; quantitative data, stories and visual outputs • Relevant: Improves impact of wider initiatives • Feasible: Practical proposals for short term • Appealing: Men involved; addressing care is a ‘societal issue’ about well-being • Compelling: Leads to transformational change • Flexible: In a range of cultures/programmes • Workable: Simple, user-friendly exercises • Inspiring: RCA aims to ‘open the door’ – get more people and projects interested in care RCA focus group in the Philippines
Where Oxfam programmes are addressing ‘care’ OPT : Honduras UK Azerbaijan Guatemala Nicaragua Bangladesh Ethiopia Uganda Philippines Zambia Malawi Tanzania Sri Lanka Colombia
“It took time to clarify why we were discussing care. Then the first questions (who do you care for?) worked well to build cohesion in the group. It wasn’t long before the inequality between men and women were obvious. The most useful finding was on time use.” Honduras staff Participants’ comments on Rapid Care Analysis “Women are really overburdened; something has to be done about this” – Imam, Mindanao, Philippines “We are thankful to have seen and understood the unequal contribution of men and women at household level.” Men’s group, Philippines “Participants struggled at first to connect family-provided care to governance... then participants realized how services and infra-structure reduce the difficulty of care, and linked care with poverty. “We need to include young people, boys and girls, in the exercises.” Bangladesh, Azerbaijan “Some participants have managed to renegotiate care activities with their husbands and family members.” Colombia
Why? RCA and the Household Care Survey Rigorous research, Evidence for policy Ownership and interest! Estimated time use (numbers) Local ‘problem statement’ Identify options for strategies
The Logic of the 4 Steps STEP 1: Explore relationships of care in the community STEP 2: Identify unpaid and paid work activities performed by women and men. STEP 3: Document the care activities that women and men undertake at household level and identify how changes in the context affect activities. STEP 4: Discuss the support, services and infrastructure related to care that are available in the community. Identify options for reducing and/or redistributing care work.
But we use 7 exercises Focus Group Discussion (FGD) 1: Understanding care roles and relationships in households FGD 2: Average weekly hours spent on different types of work FGD 3: How care roles are distributed FGD 4: Exploring changes in care patterns FGD 5: Problematic care activities FGD 6: Infrastructure and services that support care work FGD 7: Identifying options to address the problems with care work
Exercise 1: Exploring relationships of care • What do we mean by ‘care work’? • Whom do you care for? • Who cares for you and others?
Exercise 2: Unpaid & paid work activities • Identify work activities of women and men • Estimate average weekly hours spent on types of work • One day recall is ‘best’ estimate • Simultaneous activities are critical to capture • Categories-all work & non-work, care within that • A week is representative (vs. day or month) • Men and women
Exercise two – example from Bangladesh Work to produce products for sale: 47.5-52 Unpaid care work: 7 Work to produce products for sale: 0 Unpaid care work: 57.75 Men’s 70-hr week Women’s 84.5-hr week Unpaid work for producing or home consumption: 24.5 Paid labour: 21 Unpaid work for producing or home consumption: 7 Paid labour: 21 Unpaid community work : 2 Unpaid community work: 3.5
Exercise 4: changes affecting care provision • How is displacement affecting care? • How are families coping with care tasks after disasters? • Policy change (clinics, childcare) impacting care? • Seasonal calendar of care? • How is migration changing who provides care? • How does a woman’s lifecycle affect care responsibilities?
Exercise 5 : Identify most ‘problematic’ care tasks • Identify most ‘problematic’ care activities, especially for women
Exercise 6: Infrastructure & services to support care Community map of infrastructure and services that support care Society provides care with ‘care diamond’*: state, market, community, family • Examples: • Water supply • Electricity, fuel • Washing facilities • Health services • Schools, childcare • Grain mills, oil presses • Shops • Services for elderly, disabled or HIV+ people • Relatives • Value of care in beliefs • * SharaRazavi 2007
Exercise 7: Identifying options to address the problems with care work Solutions that have come out of RCAs: • Practical and quick interventions (to build confidence that change can happen) • Awareness-raising on attitudes to care, and gender roles (long-term transformation) • Advocacy and campaigning for infrastructure and services (institutional and structural change)
For example in Colombia • Funding or investment needed? • External support? • Social acceptance? • Impact – how much time saved for women? Health benefit? Mobility? • Colombia
In just a minute… planning for RCA • ROLES • Which FGDs/exercises? • Who participates? • Who facilitates? • Who documents the discussions? • Where? When? How long for? • Preparatory meetings? But first, your questions about the methodology
Questions for RCA • ROLES • Which FGDs/exercises? • Who participates? • Who facilitates? • Who documents the discussions? • Where? • When? • How long for? • Preparatory meetings? • Logistics (food, transport, child care, materials etc.)?
Roles • Planning – Programme manager chooses facilitator, agrees on documentation and who will perform what role, decides on parameters of analysis based on desired outcomes and decides how to use the RCA • Facilitation – 1 woman, 1 man, Oxfam/partner staff or consultant, not necessarily gender expert but understanding of care, skilled in participatory methods and facilitation, fluent in local language, working with diverse groups, identifies sensitivities/beliefs and contextual issues prior to RCA… 3) Documentation and observation – 1 person designated to observe discussions and document, identify issues (consensus/debate), and document
Choices - Uganda RCA Participants: • group of ordinary people: mainly middle aged, some younger, some older, 60% women • group of leaders: cultural, religious, political, women’s groups leaders Number of RCAs: 4 • Locations: 4 sub-counties, primary school, outside, lodges • Length: 1 day, 6.15 hours Facilitators: staff of partner organisation (WORUDET), 2 facilitators, 1 observer, 1 translator Choice of exercises: emphasis on FGD 2, 5, and 7, leave out FGD 6, divide step 3
Training, Preparation, Materials • Session 1: one week before RCA, introduction, plan mobilization • Session 2: two days before RCA, training on tools • Session 3: one day before RCA, continue training, prepare materials • Session 4: after the RCA, documentation
Documentation (1/2) • Numbers are important! • time-use survey in Step 2! • Record hours for both gender, including ours of total work and hours of unpaid care work • For consistency in data collection and for influencing • Compelling visual representations (e.g. graphs and infographics which communicate the issue effectively to identified audiences) • To ensure awareness raising and influencing among identified stakeholders 2) Follow a template! • Ensures consistency across countries so all countries are represented in global communications • Ensures all key data is collected
Documentation (2/2) 3) Quotes • Write down the exact words of the participants so that they can be used as quotes • Quotes are useful and can help illustrate: • The extent of the problems around care • Gendered division of labour • Shifts in belief • Support at community level • The importance of solutions 4) Record differences and disagreements • Include explanations for differences between participants’ answers during the exercises • Keep track of disagreements and contradictions • These might be due to factors such as: age, marital status, gender, social status, economic status, older/younger wives in polygamous marriages, number of children, jobs, etc…