Types of Learning • 1) Habituation • 2) Classical Conditioning • 3) Operant Conditioning
Operant Conditioning • Edward Thorndike
Gradually it escapes quicker A specific response become “strengthened” by being paired with a pleasant outcome
Law of Effect • "Of several responses made to the same situation those which are accompanied or closely followed by satisfaction to the animal will, other things being equal, be more firmly connected with the situation, so that, when it recurs, they will be more likely to recur; those which are accompanied or closely followed by discomfort to the animal will, other things being equal, have their connections to the situation weakened, so that, when it recurs, they will be less likely to occur. • Note: It is missing information about the internal state of the animal • Thorndike used hungry cats and rats!
Needs • Behavior is not just a function of the environment but also. . . • Properties of the organism
All animals have certain needs (food) Creates drives (drive for food) Reducing drive (by eating) reinforces the behavior (eating)
Learning • Both Hull and Thorndike felt their learning was the same as Pavlov’s classical conditioning
B. F. Skinner Noted differences between the types of learning. How is classical conditioning different then either Thorndike’s or Hull’s theories?
Operant Conditioning • Classical = animal does nothing to its environment. • Operant = The animal alters its environment.
Reinforcement Theory • Operant Conditioning • Used to control behavior • Behavior • Reward • Behaviors that are rewarded are more likely to be performed in the future
Reinforcement Theory • Operant Conditioning
Reinforcement Theory • Operant Conditioning
Skinner Box • Sniffy Program
Operant Conditioning • Superstitious behavior • Baseball players • Shaping behavior • Getting him to open the car door • Skinner legend
Group Activity • Identify one behavior in yourself that you would like to change • Determine a system of rewards and punishments that you could use to change this behavior • Do you think this would work?
Did Skinner really raise his daughter in a Skinner Box? Picture from Ladies' Home Journal: "Baby in a Box.”
Question • Why are you going to college? • What are you dating someone? • Why are you listening to this lecture? • You do all of these things because of a long history of rewards and punishments!
Classical vs. Operant Conditioning • Classical • “Reactions” to the world • Emotions • Traits: anxiousness, neuroticism, depression • Operant • “Actions” toward the world • Behaviors • Traits: Extraversion, argumentativeness, kindness
Behaviorism • Pros • Controlling behavior • Focus on the observable • Cons • Mental life • Motivation • Thought • Cognition
Next theories • Keep the empirical rigor of behaviorism and add. . . . • Cognition, thought, motivation, etc. • Social learning • In Skinner box animals are alone • We learn by watching others! • Treat humans as active in selecting their environment • In Skinner box a rat is placed in there • We select our environments and they will change because we are in them • You at a party!
Theories • Dollard and Miller’s Social Learning Theory • Rotter’s Social Learning Theory • Bandura’s Social Learning Theory
Dollard and Miller • Combines behaviorism and Freudian theory!
Habit Hierarchy • All the behaviors a person might do • From most likely to least likely
Habit Hierarchy Talk to Ponch Get a drink Talk to a woman In a bar Comb hair But, this can change based on reinforcement or punishment Flex muscles
Activity • Create your own habit hierarchy for being in the classroom • List Top 5 habits • Why do you think these are the top 5? • How do you think we could change these?
In order to learn -- John (an organism) must • 1) Want something (a woman) • 2) Notice something (perceive the woman) • 3) Do something (talk to the woman) • 4) Get something (a smile)
Note • This is already different than behaviorism • Dollard and Miller • Motivation (want something) • Perception (notice something)
Note • This is already different than behaviorism • Behaviorism • Learning changes behavior • Dollard and Miller • Learning changes the HH • HH is a non-observable psychological entity
What do you want? • Drives • A psychological tension that feels good when it is reduced. Need Drive
Drives • Primary Drives • Biologically built-in drives • Food, water, sex, avoid pain, etc. • Secondary Drives • Psychologically based • Love, prestige, money, power, etc. • Learned by being paired with primary drives
Imagine John asks the Charlie's Angels out on a date John gets rejected! Is upset so he goes riding with Ponch Arrests a person for no reason at all!
Why? • Freud • Frustration-Aggression Hypothesis • Natural reaction for any person (or animal) to being blocked from a goal, will be the urge to lash out or injure. • The more important the goal, the greater will be the aggressive impulse
Frustration-Aggression Hypothesis • Different than Freud • No ID is needed (or ego) • Same as Freud • Displacement • e.g., riots • Sublimation (can be constructive)
What is fun? The story about me in the book
Approach-Avoidance Conflict • Conflict between desire and fear • Changes over time
Approach-Avoidance Conflict • 1) An increase in drive strength will increase the tendency to approach or avoid a goal VS. If John wants to relieve a drive more than Ponch, John will also want the goal more!
Approach-Avoidance Conflict • 2) Whenever there are two competing responses, the stronger one (the one with the greater drive) will win out. Drive: Companionship Drive: Avoid rejection