1920s US Population: 105,273,049 (at beginning of decade) By the end of the decade: 122,288,177 The U.S. Census Bureau projected that on Jan. 1, 2014, the United States population will be 317,297,938.
Unemployment 1920s: 2,132,000 5.2% Unemployment 1990s: 5.7% Unemployment 2003: 6% Unemployment as of March 2014: 6.6%
1920s life expectancy: Males: 53.6 years Females: 54.6 years For those born in 2010 in U.S.A (of all races): Males: 76 years Females: 81 years
1920s number of people in the military: 343,000 (down from 1,172,601 in 1919) Currently: 1.42 million in active Army, Navy, Air Force, Marines, Coast Guard 851,000 in Reserves, Army and Air Force National Guard
Average Annual Salary: $1236 Equivalent today to: $12,741.38
Prior to 1920s: World War I US Economy goes Global Technology takes off Immigration Act of 1917 Red Scare
Presidents: Warren G. Harding (1921-1923) Calvin Coolidge (1923-1928)
United States emerges from WWI as the dominant figure in World Trade Much money to be made in investments: rich get richer.
19th Amendment-Ratified in August of 1920 Ensures no US citizen will be denied the right to vote based on gender.
Number of American farms with electricity by the end of the decade was: 10% Number of farms with running water by the end of the decade was: 33%
Roads that had been paved for motor cars between cities left small towns isolated from the rest of the country.
Rural people were also cut off from colleges, which were becoming more and more necessary as new skills were required for industry.
Rural America is left behind. For the first time in American History, more people lived in urban areas than in rural. Four million farmers quit in the 1920s to move to urban areas
What else took off in the twenties? Department stores Wonder bread Band-Aids Velveeta Advertising billboards and commercials Wheaties Kleenex Macy’s Thanksgiving Day Parade Gerber Baby Food La-Z-Boy Loungers Fast Food
18th Amendment-Ratified on January 16, 1919 This made illegal: the manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors within, the importation thereof into, or the exportation thereof from the United States and all territory subject to the jurisdiction thereof for beverage purposes. The Volstead Act of 1919 defined alcohol as any drink having an alcoholic content above 0.5 percent.
This led to the era known as Prohibition. Its goal, in theory, was to reduce crime, poverty, the prison systems, death and disease rate, corruption, and other social problems. Many historians believe it was a WASP backlash to exert superiority over minorities, a reaction to the overwhelming immigration of the first part of the century.
Problems: • Very hard to enforce • Led to development of organized crime
By 1925, there were an estimated 100,000 Speakeasies in New York City. Underpaid police officers were easily bribed into warning these Speakeasies about raids and feigning oblivion about the mob.
Speakeasies united citizens of various ethnic backgrounds when nothing else could.
THE FLAPPER • During the 1920s, a new ideal emerged for some women: the Flapper • A Flapper was an emancipated young woman who embraced the new fashions and urban attitudes
New found freedom led to the rise of the so-called “flapper”: 1923-24 1925 1926
This is the cover of a 1925 clothing company featuring the latest in men’s suits.
SECTION 3: EDUCATION AND POPULAR CULTURE • During the 1920s, developments in education had a powerful impact on the nation • Enrollment in high schools quadrupled between 1914 and 1926 • Public schools met the challenge of educating millions of immigrants
EXPANDING NEWS COVERAGE • As literacy increased, newspaper circulation rose and mass-circulation magazines flourished • By the end of the 1920s, ten American magazines -- including Reader’s Digest and Time – boasted circulations of over 2 million
This issue of Life has a flapper on the cover. By 1925, when this magazine was originally published, organized sports were very popular. College football was really a big deal, as was golf and baseball, but professional football was taking off as well.
RADIO COMES OF AGE • Although print media was popular, radio was the most powerful communications medium to emerge in the 1920s • News was delivered faster and to a larger audience • Americans could hear the voice of the president or listen to the World Series live
While people listened to the premiere jazz musicians of the day, they danced all kinds of new dances, including the Charleston.
LINDBERGH’S FLIGHT • America’s most beloved hero of the time wasn’t an athlete but a small-town pilot named Charles Lindbergh • Lindbergh made the first nonstop solo trans-atlantic flight • He took off from NYC in theSpirit of St. Louisand arrived in Paris 33 hours later to a hero’s welcome
The Jazz AgeThe Meaning Of Jazz Total improvisational style, meant liberation for both the artist and the audience. Expressed the desire to break with tradition. Jazz becomes the symbol of the new “American rebel.” 1920s Jazz Band http://seventhgradehistory.wikispaces.com/file/view/27374_2.jpg/189700758/27374_2.jpg
The Jazz AgeBackground Music form developed in New Orleans by black musicians near the turn of the century. A purely American creation, relied on traditional black themes and improvisation. Would spread throughout America and be adopted by white musicians and audiences. Louis “Satchmo” Armstrong http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/0e/Louis_Armstrong_restored.jpg/250px-Louis_Armstrong_restored.jpg
LOUIS ARMSTRONG • Jazz was born in the early 20th century • In 1922, a young trumpet player named Louis Armstrong joined the Creole Jazz Band • Later he joined Fletcher Henderson’s band in NYC • Armstrong is considered the most important and influential musician in the history of jazz
AFRICAN-AMERICAN PERFORMERS • During the 1920s, black performers won large followings • Paul Robeson, son of a slave, became a major dramatic actor • His performance in Othello was widely praised
EDWARD KENNEDY “DUKE” ELLINGTON • In the late 1920s, Duke Ellington, a jazz pianist and composer, led his ten-piece orchestra at the famous Cotton Club • Ellington won renown as one of America’s greatest composers
BESSIE SMITH • Bessie Smith, blues singer, was perhaps the most outstanding vocalist of the decade • She achieved enormous popularity and by 1927 she became the highest- paid black artist in the world
RadioBackground Developed in the late 1800s, would be used for the military during World War I. First commercial radio station is created in 1920 with KDKA in Pittsburgh. KDKA In The Roaring Twenties http://www.hammondmuseumofradio.org/images/kdka-logo.jpg
MoviesEarly Films First major film: The Great Train Robbery, 1903. First major epic: Birth Of A Nation, 1915. Directed by D.W. Griffiths, was about the Reconstruction South. The Great Train Robbery http://www.pictureshowman.com/images/GTR_Edison_poster.gif
MoviesEarly Films First talking movie: The Jazz Singer, 1927. Stars Al Jolson, sees Jolson in black face in parts. Scene From The Jazz Singer http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-hAnGW6Nft04/ThQ0s7B_H8I/AAAAAAAAA8Q/gI-0T2gD29U/s400/TJS.jpg The Jazz Singer Movie Poster http://www.georgegroves.org.uk/jazzsinger_files/jazzsingerposter.jpg
ENTERTAINMENT AND ARTS • Even before sound, movies offered a means of escape through romance and comedy • First sound movies: Jazz Singer(1927) • First animated with sound: Steamboat Willie(1928) • By 1930millions ofAmericans went to the movies each week Walt Disney's animated Steamboat Willie marked the debut of Mickey Mouse. It was a seven minute long black and white cartoon.
MoviesEarly Films Other key films. The Four Horsemen Of The Apocalypse (1920), The Sheik (1921), Robin Hood (1922), The Thief Of Baghdad (1924), The Torrent (1926), The Hunchback Of Notre Dame (1923), The Phantom Of The Opera (1925), Ben-Hur(1925), Wings (1927), Steamboat Willie(1928). Steamboat Willie http://farm1.staticflickr.com/98/240970989_4461ecb691.jpg The Sheik http://www.moviegoods.com/Assets/product_images/1020/144321.1020.A.jpg Phantom Of The Opera http://www.cultmoviez.com/P/slides/POSTER%20-%20THE%20PHANTOM%20OF%20THE%20OPERA%20(1925)%20(2).jpg
MoviesSuccess As An Art Form Originally only accepted by immigrants and low-income families. Most people who could afford it went to plays, instead going to “nickelodeons” = small, simple theaters charged five cents for admission and flourished from about 1905 to 1915. Old 1920s Nickelodeon http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_tX4uFyNzVRE/S6617VS9X0I/AAAAAAAAAj4/XLKABRUau4o/s1600/the-spoilers-sm.jpg
MoviesSuccess As An Art Form Developed into an art form. Actors, actresses, writers, and producers from Broadway begin to make the crossover. Bring their professionalism and training techniques to the big screen. New techniques are introduced, including close-ups, panoramic shots, lighting effects, and fade-out, capturing the realism of human emotion. 1920s Broadway Show http://30.media.tumblr.com/tumblr_lh9xiwT4kp1qabipmo1_500.jpg
MoviesSuccess As An Art Form Targeted themes popular with the general public. Most of the more successful movies incorporated one or more of the following themes into the story: crime, war, romance, comedy, and luxury.
MoviesKey Figures Of The Silent & Early Golden Age Animator. Walt Disney. Walt Disney & Mickey Mouse http://www.worldculturepictorial.com/images/content/walt-disney_mickey-mouse.jpg