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Prenatal Development and Birth

Prenatal Development and Birth

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Prenatal Development and Birth

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  1. The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence by Kathleen Stassen Berger Seventh Edition Chapter 4 Prenatal Development and Birth Slides prepared by Kate Byerwalter, Ph.D.,Grand Rapids Community College

  2. A remarkable journey…are you ready? PHOTODISC Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 4

  3. Stages of Prenatal Development • Germinal Period (0-2 weeks) • Conception occurs in fallopian tubes • Cell differentiation and multiplication • 42% of conceptions successfully implant in uterus Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 4

  4. The Start of the Journey Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 4

  5. Stages of PrenatalDevelopment (cont.) • Embryonic Period (3-8 weeks) • Major organs develop • At 8 weeks, organism is less than 2˝ long! • Fetal Period (9 weeks-birth) • Sex organs develop • Brain development is significant • Age of viability occurs around 22 weeks Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 4

  6. The Fetus S. J. ALLEN / INTERNATIONAL STOCK PHOTO Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 4

  7. Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 4

  8. Stages of Prenatal Development (cont.) • Age of viability is the age at which a preterm newborn might survive. • Weight plays a crucial role • Only 20% under 1½ pounds survive • By 28 weeks, survival rate is 95% Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 4

  9. Make it Real: Do’s and Don’ts of Pregnancy • List some things you have heard that a woman should or shouldn’t do while pregnant. Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 4

  10. Risk Reduction • Teratology = the study of birth defects • Teratogens = harmful agents to the developing organism • Examples: diseases (e.g., rubella), lifestyle choices (e.g., drug use), medications, toxins • Teratology is a science of risk analysis. Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 4

  11. Determining Risk • Timing of exposure • Critical period is the time of greatest vulnerability (for each body structure) • Amount of exposure • Threshold effect and interaction effect • Genetic vulnerability • Ethnicity, sex (males as greater risk) Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 4

  12. Critical Periods of Development Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 4

  13. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome • Caused by heavy drinking (> 5 drinks/day) • Causes severe cognitive, physical, and behavioral deficits • Is the leading behavioral cause of mental retardation Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 4

  14. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome BOTH: GEORGE STEINMETZ Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 4

  15. Cigarette Smoking • Cigarette smoking cuts off oxygen to the developing baby by 20%, significantly increasing the risk of having a low birthweight newborn. Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 4

  16. Birthweight • The average weight of a newborn is 7½ lbs. • LBW is considered less than 5½ lbs. • Preterm is less than 35 weeks. PHOTODISC Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 4

  17. Possible Causes of LBW • Lifestyle choices • e.g., cigarette smoking accounts for 25% of LBW births worldwide! • Maternal malnutrition • Multiple births • Prescription drugs • Unknown causes Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 4

  18. Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 4

  19. The Birth Process: Methods of Delivery • Hospital (majority of U.S. births) • Birthingcenters (5%) • At home (1%) • Doula: someone who helps women with labor, delivery, breastfeeding • Cesarean Section (28%) • Intended for emergencies Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 4

  20. “Look out world, here I come!” PHOTODISC Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 4

  21. Newborn’s First Minutes • Apgar Scale • An assessment of risk taken 1 and 5 minutes after birth • Measures 5 vital signs • Score of 7 or higher = infant is fine • Score below 7 = infant needs help breathing • Score below 4 = infant needs critical care Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 4

  22. Cesarean section is performed in about 28% of U.S. births. Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 4

  23. Birth Complications • Cerebral Palsy includes difficulties with movement control, often resulting from a combination of genetic vulnerability and anoxia (lack of oxygen). • Bacterial infection caused by GBS Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 4

  24. Intensive Care for Infants • Kangaroo care: allows the parents of an infant in intensive care to be involved, holding the newborn at least an hour a day • This helps the newborns sleep better and become more alert when awake. It also helps with bonding. Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 4

  25. Long-Term Effects of Intensive Care • There are some long-term delays for preterm infants (e.g., slower to communicate, hold bottle). • Infants with serious defects who survive often have long-lasting disabilities. • However, ongoing family support and services make a big difference in outcome. Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 4

  26. The Importance of Support • Mothers in Mexico receive exceptional support during pregnancy (familia)–this correlates with fewer LBW births, despite lower incomes and less prenatal care than Mexican immigrants in the U.S. • A parental alliance between father and mother of the developing baby is key! Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 4

  27. Postpartum Depression • 8-15% of women experience postpartum depression, a sense of inadequacy and sadness after birth. • Possible causes: preexisting depression, stress, marital problems, infant difficulties Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 4

  28. Postpartum Depression (cont.) • Symptoms include irritability, sleep and eating disruptions, sadness, feeling overwhelmed and inadequate as a mom, no interest in baby, or overly worried about baby. • Antidepressants and support help. Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 4