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Sub-Groups of American History

Sub-Groups of American History

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Sub-Groups of American History

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  1. Sub-Groups of American History Leaders of our past for key groups throughout American History

  2. Puritans valued family, literacy, parental direction. • Chesapeake colonies had shorter life span due to disease and had fewer children with fewer families. • Indentured servants were used more than slaves; 40% of indentured servants die before they achieve their freedom. As economics changed in Europe, fewer people needed indentured servants, so slavery became the “new option.” Life in the Colonies

  3. Men were in the power positions, and situations like Anne Hutchinson or the Salem Witch Trials as moments when women attempted to influence government. • In the Puritan society, the women had no decision-making ability; they could be be member of the church (like the men) but the women still could not vote. • Thanksgiving with Squanto and the Pilgrims; Pocahontas and John Smith; King Philip’s War are examples of culture clash. Life in the Colonies

  4. “A Powhatan tribal member, she “saved” John Smith’s life. She later marries and Englishman and goes to England and received royally. She becomes ill and dies there.” Pocahontas (1595-1617)

  5. In Plymouth colony he was made Gov. William Bradford's Indian emissary. He was credited with participating the 1st Thanksgiving Squanto (1585-1623)

  6. “She held unorthodox views that challenged the authority of the clefty and views the very integrity of the Puritan experience in Massachusetts Bay Colony.” Anne Hutchinson (1591-1643)

  7. Also known as “Metacom”, this Wampanoag chief planned an attack for 13 years by planning alliances with other tribes against the Puritans. The Puritans got the Iroquois to join them and King Philip was defeated. A higher % of colonists were killed in this war than the American Revolution War later. King Philip (1675)

  8. Founded the 1st Catholic settlement in California in the mid-18th century. • Franciscan priest who traveled from Spain to Mexico to set up missions, some of which became San Diego & San Francisco. Father Junipero Serra (1713-1784)

  9. Kidnapped as a boy from Africa, Equiano survived the Middle Passage to live a life of a slave. Later he bought his freedom and became an abolitionist in England. • He wrote “The Interesting Narrative of Olaudah Equiano” • The 18th century was the busiest time of the slave trade, as over 6 million people were brought over. By the end of the 1700’s, slaves made up 80% of the Caribbean colonies. OlaudahEquiano (1745-1797

  10. Shawnee chief, along with his brother “The Prophet”, pushed for Indian alliances among tribes and the English. In the Battle of Tippencanoe, William Henry Harrison defeats “The Prophet” and the hope of the Indians. • “The Great Spirit gave this great land to his red children.” Tecumseh (early 1800’s)

  11. As a member of the Liberty Boys, he led colonists against the Redcoats in Boston; he becomes one of 5 who were killed in the “Boston Massacre.” “This Attucks…appears to have undertaken to be the hero of the night and to lead this army with banners…up to King Street with their clubs… This man with his party cried, ‘Do not be afraid of them!’ He had hardiness enough to fall in upon them!” –John Adams’ account of the Boston Massacre. Crispus Attucks

  12. After the American Revolution, the population was doubling every 25 years. There was also a migration west. • After indentured servant “volunteers” decreased and the cotton gin was invented, slavery became the major source of manpower in the South. • The growth of markets for farm products in the cities, coupled with the liberal land policies of the federal government let to steady growth in staple agricultural crops. • Before 1815, there were not many public schools; most education was private. • Women were considered unfit for academics. Life in the New Nation

  13. In 1808, trade for slaves through the Middle Passage was outlawed, if not always obeyed. Slave marriages were not recognized and slave families could be separated when slaves were sold “down the river” towards New Orleans. • The Native Americans had split on their loyalities during the French-Indian War. During the American Revolution, most had sided with the French. • Thomas Jefferson was one of the first to consider the idea of moving the Indians to a “reservation” system. Life in the New Nation

  14. “1st great woman poet, whose poetry revolved around her faith and religious themes. When her first poetry book was published, many did not believe a former slave had written it. John Hancock vouched for her authorship.” Phyllis Wheatley (1753-1784)

  15. 15 year old wife of a French fur trader, this Mandan Indian maiden (with her baby son) went along with Lewis & Clark to serve as an interpreter. Sacajawea (1804)

  16. “If particular care and attention is not paid to the ladies, we are determined to foment a rebellion, and will not hold ourselves bound by any laws in which we have no voice, or representation.” Abigail Adams (1744-1818)

  17. Dolly saved many important documents and a portrait of President Washington when the British burned the Capitol during the War of 1812. Dolly Madison

  18. There was a movement to allow all white males to vote (versus just the land-owning gentry) under Jackson: “Age of the Common Man.” • Free blacks in the South were usually excluded from the polls, and even in Northern states. • Jackson supported the removal of all Indian tribes to west of the Miss. River. The Indian Removal Act (1830) and the refusal to enforce the Worcester v. Ga Supreme Court case sealed their fate. Life in the Jacksonian & Antebellum Eras

  19. Europeans such as Alex Touqueville described Americans as being restless, compulsive joiners of groups, committed to progress, hard-working, hard-playing, and driven to acquire wealth. • These Americans talked of equality, but the reality of the system led to class society and mob incidents. • The Transcendentalists began in Concord, Mass. Led by Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau, and Emily Dickinson repudiated the repression of society, the use of civil disobedience, and the lessons learned from nature. • Manifest Destiny is completed in President Polk’s adminstration. Life in the Jacksonian and Antebellum Eras

  20. Protestant Revivalism became a powerful force, including Charles Finney’s “Social Gospel”. • Women’s temperance movements started in 1826, though many immigrants fought it. • Dorthea Dix, Seneca Falls, and the Abolitionist Movement began during this period. • Birth rates began to drop, especially in cities. Children were more economic liabilities than assets. Immigration increased in the cities. • The 1st Industrial Revolution occurs, and for the 1st time, there were more wage earners than self-employed Americans. “King Cotton took over in the South.” Gabriel Prosser, Denmark Vesey, and Nat Turner planned to lead slave revolts. Life in the Jacksonian and Antebellum Eras

  21. Cherokee man, also known as “George Guess” created the 1st written language for a Native American tribe. • It was a syllabury, based on syllables rather than letters. Sequoyah

  22. Cherokee chief who won Worcester v. Georgia, only to watch President Andrew Jackson refuse to support the decision. Chief Ross later was forced to lead his tribe on the “Trail of Tears” to Oklahoma. John Ross (1830’s)

  23. Cult of Domesticity: The prevailing view in the early 1800’s that a woman’s roles were to be housework, child care, and teaching. • Lowell Mill hired women for less pay than men (though it did pay more than teaching). They’d work 13 hours a day. They later organized the 1st strike by women workers. Cult of Domesticity v. The Lowell Mill

  24. Clara served as a nurse during the Civil War and later started the Red Cross. • She went to Andersonville Prison in Georgia to identify graves of fallen Union prisoners. Clara Barton

  25. As a prison and asylum reformer, she focused on rehabilitation & treatment for the sick and imprisoned. • “Injustice is also done to the convicts: it is certainly very wrong that they should be doomed day after day and night after night to listen to the ravings of manmen and madwomen.” Dorthea Dix (

  26. Attended the National Anti-Slavery Society and befriended Lucretia Mott. • They held the women’s rights convention in Seneca Fall, New York in 1848. • “We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men and women are created equal.” Elizabeth Cady Stanton

  27. With Elizabeth Stanton, she planned the Seneca Falls Women’s Right Convention. She gave the opening speech & closing speech. • She was a Quaker! • She and her husband later became a “stop” on the Underground RR. Lucretia Mott

  28. These sisters were daughters of a slave owner in South Carolina. These ladies began to speak for the abolition of slaves. • Angelina wrote An Appeal to Christian women of the South that spelled out the evils of slavery. • The Massachusetts clergy criticized the ladies for assuming the “place & tone of man as public reformers.” Sarah & Angelina Grimke

  29. Part of the Transcendentalism Movement in the mid-1800’s, Alcott joined Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau in the belief of “living a simple life and celebrating the truth found in nature and in personal emotion and imagination.” Emily Dickinson

  30. In 1849, she became the 1st woman to graduate from a medical college. • She later opened the Infirmary for Women and Children. Elizabeth Blackwell

  31. Isabella Baumfree was born a slave, but became on July 4, 1827, when New York abolished slavery. She then traveled the country preaching and arguing for abolition of slaves. • “Ain’t I a woman? I could work as much as eat as much as a man…and bear the lash as well. Ain’t I a woman?” Sojourner Truth (1797-1883)

  32. Slave preacher who was moved by the story of Moses leading the Israelites out of slavery. He leads a revolt that leads to many deaths, including his own. Nat Turner (1800-1831)

  33. Known as “Black Moses”, she led 300+ people to freedom on the Underground RR after the Fugitive Slave Act. • A $40,000 bounty was put on her for her capture! • She later served as a spy for the North during the Civil War. Harriet Tubman (1820-1913)

  34. Abolitionist who wrote Uncle Tom’s Cabin in 1852. • Later, during the Civil War, Stowe met President Lincoln who said: “So this is the little lady who made the big war.” Harriet Beecher Stowe (1811-1896)

  35. Slave who got his friends to “mail” him to freedom from Virginia to the Abolitionist Society in Philadelphia. • He spent 28 hours in a 4 foot box with biscuits and water. Henry “Box” Brown (1815-???)

  36. Former slave who spoke & wrote eloquently about abolition of slavery. • Published the North Star newspaper. • Pushed President Lincoln for emancipation of slaves during Civil War. Frederick Douglass (1818-1895)

  37. Sherman’s “total warfare” devastated life in the South: 10% of the men had died, property had been destroyed, value in slaves was lost, land was confiscated, carpetbaggers & scalawags attempted to dominate, and the Ku Klux Klan begins to limit the rights of the newly freedmen. • Boss Tweed’s Tammany Hall dominated local city politics and Confederate leaders were prohibited from holding office or voting. • Corruption in Grant’s time, Election of 1876, and Cleveland’s tenure led to increased power by Congress. Civil War, Reconstruction, New South

  38. Henry Grady’s idea of the “New South” led to an expanse of business and industry, rather than just agriculture in the South. • Robber Barons such as Andrew Carnegie, John D. Rockefeller, Cornelius Vanderbilt, J.P. Morgan gain great wealth in their monopolies. • Skyscrapers, immigrants, Ellis Island, Statue of Liberty become big parts of America. • Social Gospel for better health, education and living conditions (besides spritual salvation) became the focus of those like Jane Addams. Civil War, Reconstruction,New South

  39. Temperance Movement (Carrie Nation) and Labor Unions (Samuel Gompers) begin to grow. Also missionaries for “White Man’s Burden” becomes a goal for North America. • Industrial Revolution with Thomas Edison, Alexander Graham Bell, etc. occurs. • Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. Dubois become leaders in the “Separate but Equal” time. • Latin American trade increases under President Hayes; 1st ideas of a canal through Nicaragua is proposed. • Native Americans win “Little Big Horn” but lose the war and are forced onto reservations. • Mark Twain becomes the writer of the age. Civil War, Reconstruction,New South

  40. The most famous Hispanic of the Civil War and the 1st to achieve the rank of admiral. • He captured many Confederate ships and secured New Orleans for the Union during the war. David Farragut(1801-1870)

  41. Leader of the Nez Perce Indians, who led 750 people 1400 miles in a flight to Canada from the U.S. Army. • Treat all men alike. Give them all the same law. Give them all an even chance to live and grow. All men wer made by the same Great Spirit Chief.” Chief Joseph (1840-1904)

  42. Sioux chief who defeated George Custer at Little Big Horn in June 1876. • Sitting Bull later joined Buffalo Bill Cody’s Wild West Show that toured the world. Sitting Bull (1831-1890)

  43. Chief of the Apaches, he was the last leader to surrender in the Red River War; it was one of the bloodiest Indian conflicts. Geronimo (1829- 1909)

  44. President of Tuskegee Institute • Saw education as key during the “Separate But Equal” time • 1st African-American to be invited to a White House dinner (TR) • 5 Finger Speech Booker T. Washington (1856-1915)

  45. Founder of the Niagara Movement (later the NAACP), Dubois disagreed with Booker T. Washington on how to move against the “separate but equal” mandate of the Supreme Court in the 1890’s. • “Souls of Black Folk” was his greatest writing, and it called for a demand in equality for African-Americans and to educate the “Top 10%” of African-Americans in universities. W.E.B. Dubois

  46. Born into slavery, she moved to Memphis after emancipation. She worked as a teacher and newspaper editor. • “This is what opened my eyes to what lynching really was. An excuse to get rid of Negroes who were acquiring wealth and property and thus keep the race terrorized.” Ida Wells (1880’s)

  47. Great educator and scientist, Carver taught at Tuskegee Institute and help diversify farming techniques such as: • Crop rotation • Peanut usage • Soybean usage • Sweet potato usage George Washington Carver(1864-1943)

  48. Worked for women’s rights for 50 years. • Wrote a weekly paper: The Revolution, which stressed the importance of women’s suffrage. • She’s on the silver dollar coin. Susan B. Anthony(1820-1906)

  49. As a nurse, she opened the 1st clinic for women and the distribution of birth control information. • She later founded the group that became “Planned Parenthood”. Margaret Sanger (1920’s)

  50. Populists wanted a silver standard, a graduated income tax, rural postal system, public ownership of RR, telephone, & telegraph, 8 hour workday, 1 single 6-year term for the President, and direct election of U.S. Senators. • Jane Addams’ Hull House helped settle new immigrants from Greece, Germany, Italy, Poland, and Russia. • Progressives led to Hepburn Act (inter-state commerce) and Pure Food & Drug Act (1906) Populists- Roaring Twenties