Chapter 3 Communities, Biomes, and Ecosystems
Section 1 vocabulary (6): • community, • limiting factor, • ecological succession, • primary succession, • climax community, • secondary succession.
Community- (60) • A group of interacting populations that occupy the same area at the same time. • It includes plants, animals and bacteria. • the different species that live together in a habitat • It includes multiple populations • It does not include the abiotic components
limiting factor, (61) • Any biotic or abiotic factor that restricts the numbers, reproduction or distribution of organisms. • Examples include sunlight, soil chemistry, space or temperature. • Plant and animal species living in an area, competition between species.
Limiting factors Biotic: Food/ predator/ prey Abiotic Factors
The range of tolerance the upper and lower limits of what an organism can survive! • Temperature, pH, oxygen amounts all can have limits. • There will be an optimal zone where the greatest number of the organism will be found and then less will be found towards the stress zones…
Range of tolerance • If the range is narrow, it limits the conditions under which the organism can grow
Range of tolerance • 2. Would an organism with a wide or narrow range of tolerance be more likely to survive better when abiotic factors are greatly changed? _______________why?
ecological succession (62) • The change in an ecosystem that happens when one community replaces another as a result of changing abiotic or biotic factors. • There are two types: • primary and secondary
primary succession, (62) • The establishment of a community on an area of exposed rock that does not have top soil. • A slow process! • New rock formations • Volcanic areas or glacial • Starts small with pioneer organisms first producing dead decaying material to • help produce soil.
3. What types of organisms are pioneer species? • Why are they termed "pioneer?" ______________________________________________________
Climax community (63) • A mature community that results when there is little change in the composition of species. The end result of primary succession. • It takes a very long time for the climax community to be reached. • Sometimes it is never reached.
Secondary succession (63) • The orderly and predictable change that takes place after a community of organisms has been removed but the soil has remained intact from an event such as fire, flood or windstorm. • Pioneer species are the first to grow in this process . These are different from primary pioneer species. It is faster because soil is already present.
Secondary succession http://www.google.com/imgres?q=secondary+succession&hl=en&safe=active&rls=com.microsoft:en-us&rlz=1I7RNSN_enUS410&biw=1016&bih=552&tbm=isch&tbnid=Wu0jAaoiLP3-MM:&imgrefurl=http://learn.uci.edu/oo/getOCWPage.php%3Fcourse%3DOC0111223%26lesson%3D002%26topic%3D006%26page%3D16&docid=mmm0MoCIZjXJ5M&imgurl=http://learn.uci.edu/media/OC01/11223/SecondarySuccession.jpg&w=730&h=300&ei=7k4uUef-KIKg8gStroDoCA&zoom=1&iact=rc&dur=265&sig=111375078243742068944&page=2&tbnh=112&tbnw=246&start=14&ndsp=17&ved=1t:429,r:20,s:0,i:145&tx=124&ty=58
4. What is the significant difference between primary and secondary succession?
SC.912.L.17.4: Describe changes in ecosystems resulting from seasonal variations, climate change, and succession. • 1. How do unfavorable abiotic and biotic factors affect species?
5. What is a climax community? • 6. What generally happens to the size of the organisms in a population as succession occurs?
Section 2 Vocabulary (3) : • latitude, • climate, • biome
Latitude (65) The distance of any point on the surface of Earth north or south of the equator. • As you go to higher latitudes the temperature decreases due to the decrease in the sun’s intensity this is due to the curvature of the earth. The angle of the sun’s rays are most direct between the tropic of Cancer and the tropic of Capricorn
2. How might global warming affect populations of organisms that have a narrow temperature tolerance?
Climate (66) • The average weather conditions in an area Including temperature and precipitation. • Higher latitude = colder temperatures • Higher altitude = colder temperatures • Close to a large body of water= more precipitation and less temperature variation • Wayward side of a mountain = wet, leeward = dry
Video on climate and the ocean • http://www.earthlyissues.com/climatesystem.htm
4. What factors determine climate? Latitude and altitude = Temperature and precipitation
Biome (36) • A large group of ecosystems that share the same climate and have similar types of communities. • generally found at the same latitude and altitude, similar types of plant and animal species are found in the biomes.
Major Land biomes include : • http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/dl/free/0078695104/383916/BL_03.html
Major Land biomes • Desert: rate of evaporation exceeds rate of precipitation, on every continent except Europe
Tropical Savanna • : grasses, scattered trees, low precip
Tropical seasonal forest • : dry trees drop leaves to conserve water