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Chapter 3

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  1. Chapter 3 Communities, Biomes, and Ecosystems

  2. Section 1 vocabulary (6): • community, • limiting factor, • ecological succession, • primary succession, • climax community, • secondary succession.

  3. Community- (60) • A group of interacting populations that occupy the same area at the same time. • It includes plants, animals and bacteria. • the different species that live together in a habitat • It includes multiple populations • It does not include the abiotic components

  4. http://tierradeculturas.blogspot.com/2012_11_01_archive.html

  5. limiting factor, (61) • Any biotic or abiotic factor that restricts the numbers, reproduction or distribution of organisms. • Examples include sunlight, soil chemistry, space or temperature. • Plant and animal species living in an area, competition between species.

  6. Limiting factors Biotic: Food/ predator/ prey Abiotic Factors

  7. The range of tolerance the upper and lower limits of what an organism can survive! • Temperature, pH, oxygen amounts all can have limits. • There will be an optimal zone where the greatest number of the organism will be found and then less will be found towards the stress zones…

  8. Range of tolerance • If the range is narrow, it limits the conditions under which the organism can grow

  9. Range of tolerance • 2. Would an organism with a wide or narrow range of tolerance be more likely to survive better when abiotic factors are greatly changed? _______________why?

  10. ecological succession (62) • The change in an ecosystem that happens when one community replaces another as a result of changing abiotic or biotic factors. • There are two types: • primary and secondary

  11. primary succession, (62) • The establishment of a community on an area of exposed rock that does not have top soil. • A slow process! • New rock formations • Volcanic areas or glacial • Starts small with pioneer organisms first producing dead decaying material to • help produce soil.

  12. A predictable order of events occur!

  13. Primary succession

  14. Pioneer species like lichens

  15. 3. What types of organisms are pioneer species? • Why are they termed "pioneer?" ______________________________________________________

  16. Climax community (63) • A mature community that results when there is little change in the composition of species. The end result of primary succession. • It takes a very long time for the climax community to be reached. • Sometimes it is never reached.

  17. Secondary succession (63) • The orderly and predictable change that takes place after a community of organisms has been removed but the soil has remained intact from an event such as fire, flood or windstorm. • Pioneer species are the first to grow in this process . These are different from primary pioneer species. It is faster because soil is already present.

  18. Secondary succession

  19. Secondary succession http://www.google.com/imgres?q=secondary+succession&hl=en&safe=active&rls=com.microsoft:en-us&rlz=1I7RNSN_enUS410&biw=1016&bih=552&tbm=isch&tbnid=Wu0jAaoiLP3-MM:&imgrefurl=http://learn.uci.edu/oo/getOCWPage.php%3Fcourse%3DOC0111223%26lesson%3D002%26topic%3D006%26page%3D16&docid=mmm0MoCIZjXJ5M&imgurl=http://learn.uci.edu/media/OC01/11223/SecondarySuccession.jpg&w=730&h=300&ei=7k4uUef-KIKg8gStroDoCA&zoom=1&iact=rc&dur=265&sig=111375078243742068944&page=2&tbnh=112&tbnw=246&start=14&ndsp=17&ved=1t:429,r:20,s:0,i:145&tx=124&ty=58

  20. 4. What is the significant difference between primary and secondary succession?

  21. SC.912.L.17.4: Describe changes in ecosystems resulting from seasonal variations, climate change, and succession. • 1. How do unfavorable abiotic and biotic factors affect species?

  22. 5. What is a climax community? • 6. What generally happens to the size of the organisms in a population as succession occurs?

  23. Section 2 Vocabulary (3) : • latitude, • climate, • biome

  24. Latitude (65) The distance of any point on the surface of Earth north or south of the equator. • As you go to higher latitudes the temperature decreases due to the decrease in the sun’s intensity this is due to the curvature of the earth. The angle of the sun’s rays are most direct between the tropic of Cancer and the tropic of Capricorn

  25. 1. What causes changes in seasons?

  26. 2. How might global warming affect populations of organisms that have a narrow temperature tolerance?

  27. 3. How/why does latitude alter temperatures on earth?

  28. Climate (66) • The average weather conditions in an area Including temperature and precipitation. • Higher latitude = colder temperatures • Higher altitude = colder temperatures • Close to a large body of water= more precipitation and less temperature variation • Wayward side of a mountain = wet, leeward = dry

  29. Video on climate and the ocean • http://www.earthlyissues.com/climatesystem.htm

  30. 4. What factors determine climate? Latitude and altitude = Temperature and precipitation

  31. Biome (36) • A large group of ecosystems that share the same climate and have similar types of communities. • generally found at the same latitude and altitude, similar types of plant and animal species are found in the biomes.

  32. 5. What factors determine the 9 biomes?

  33. Major Land biomes include : • http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/dl/free/0078695104/383916/BL_03.html

  34. Tundra: treeless, permanently frozen soil permafrost.

  35. tundra

  36. Boreal Forest: evergreens coniferous forest, taiga.

  37. Boreal Forest

  38. Temperate Forest: deciduous trees, 4 seasons

  39. Temperate Forest

  40. Temperate woodland ; mixed shrub, less rainfall

  41. Temperate grassland: fertile soil, drought, prevents large trees

  42. Major Land biomes • Desert: rate of evaporation exceeds rate of precipitation, on every continent except Europe

  43. Tropical Savanna • : grasses, scattered trees, low precip

  44. Tropical seasonal forest • : dry trees drop leaves to conserve water