Download
slide1 n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Principles of Information Systems PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Principles of Information Systems

Principles of Information Systems

265 Views Download Presentation
Download Presentation

Principles of Information Systems

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Principles of Information Systems Chapter 11 Knowledge Management and Specialized Information Systems

  2. Why Learn About Specialized Information Systems? • Knowledge management (KM) and specialized information systems used in many industries • Examples • Manager might use KM to correct a problem • Automotive manager might use KM to oversee robots • Stock trader might use a neural network to uncover patterns in stock prices Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

  3. Knowledge Management Systems • Data: ? • Information:? • Knowledge:? Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

  4. Knowledge Management Systems • Data: raw facts • Information:collection of facts organized so that they have additional value beyond the value of the facts themselves • Knowledge:awareness and understanding of a set of information and the ways that information can be made useful to support a specific task or reach a decision Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

  5. Knowledge Management Systems (continued) • Knowledge management system (KMS): • Organized collection of people, procedures, software, databases, and devices • Used to create, store, share, and use the organization’s knowledge and experience Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

  6. Knowledge Management Systems (continued) Figure 11.1: The Differences Among Data, Information, and Knowledge Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

  7. Overview of Knowledge Management Systems • KMSs attempt to help organizations achieve their goals • Firms use KMSs to increase profits or reduce costs • A KMS can involve different types of knowledge • Explicit knowledge: objective; can be measured and documented in reports, papers, and rules • Tacit knowledge: hard to measure and document; typically not objective or formalized Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

  8. Data and Knowledge Management Workers and Communities of Practice • Data workers: data-entry personnel • Secretaries, administrative assistants, bookkeepers, etc. • Knowledge workers:create, use, and disseminate knowledge • Professionals in science, engineering, or business; writers; researchers; educators; corporate designers; etc. Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

  9. Data and Knowledge Management Workers and Communities of Practice (continued) • Chief knowledge officer (CKO): top-level executive who helps the organization use a KMS to create, store, and use knowledge to achieve organizational goals • Communities of practice (COP): group of people dedicated to a common discipline or practice • May be used to create, store, and share knowledge Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

  10. Obtaining, Storing, Sharing, and Using Knowledge Figure 11.3: Knowledge Management System Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

  11. Obtaining, Storing, Sharing, and Using Knowledge (continued) • Creating or obtaining knowledge • Knowledge workers often work in teams • Storing knowledge • Knowledge repository: includes documents, reports, files, and databases Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

  12. Obtaining, Storing, Sharing, and Using Knowledge (continued) • Sharing knowledge • Collaborative work software and group support systems • Nontechnical approaches • Using knowledge • Begins with locating organization’s knowledge • Knowledge map or directory Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

  13. Technology to Support Knowledge Management • An effective KMS is based on learning new knowledge and changing procedures and approaches as a result • Organizational learning • Organizational change • Data mining and business intelligence are important in capturing and using knowledge • Enterprise resource planning tools include knowledge management features Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

  14. Technology to Support Knowledge Management (continued) • Groupware can help capture, store, and use knowledge • Hardware, software, databases, telecommunications, and the Internet are needed to support most knowledge management systems • Examples of knowledge management products and services • IBM’s Lotus Notes and Domino • Microsoft’s Digital Dashboard, Web Store Technology, and Access Workflow Designer Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

  15. Technology to Support Knowledge Management (continued) Table 11.1: Additional Knowledge Management Organizations and Resources Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

  16. An Overview of Artificial Intelligence • Artificial intelligence (AI): ability of computers to mimic or duplicate functions of the human brain • Some AI applications • Make medical diagnoses • Explore for natural resources • Determine what is wrong with mechanical devices • Assist in designing and developing other computer systems Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

  17. Artificial Intelligence in Perspective • Artificial intelligence systems: people, procedures, hardware, software, data, and knowledge needed to develop computer systems and machines that demonstrate characteristics of intelligence • Researchers, scientists, and experts on how human beings think are often involved in developing these systems Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

  18. The Nature of Intelligence • Turing Test • Determines whether responses from a computer with intelligent behavior are indistinguishable from those from a human being • Learn from experiences and apply knowledge acquired from experience • Handle complex situations • Solve problems when important information is missing Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

  19. The Nature of Intelligence (continued) • Determine what is important • React quickly and correctly to a new situation • Understand visual images • Perceptive system: approximates how humans see, hear, and feel objects • Process and manipulate symbols • Be creative and imaginative • Use heuristics (วิสามัญสำนึก) Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

  20. The Difference Between Natural and Artificial Intelligence Table 11.2: A Comparison of Natural and Artificial Intelligence Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

  21. The Major Branches of Artificial Intelligence Figure 11.5: A Conceptual Model of Artificial Intelligence Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

  22. Expert Systems • Hardware and software that stores knowledge and makes inferences, similar to a human expert • Used in many business applications Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

  23. Robotics • Mechanical or computer devices that perform tasks: • Requiring a high degree of precision, or • Tedious (น่าเบื่อน่ารำคาญ) or hazardous (อันตราย) for humans • Robots are essential components of today’s automated manufacturing and military systems • Future robots will find wider applications in banks, restaurants, homes, doctor offices, and hazardous working environments Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

  24. Vision Systems • Hardware and software that permit computers to capture, store, and manipulate visual images and pictures • Fingerprint analysis • Identifying people based on facial features • Used in conjunction with robots to give these machines “sight” Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

  25. Natural Language Processing and Voice Recognition • Processing that allows the computer to understand and react to statements and commands made in a “natural” language, such as English • Voice recognition: converting sound waves into words Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

  26. Learning Systems • Combination of software and hardware that allows the computer to change how it functions or reacts to situations based on feedback it receives • Learning systems software requires feedback on results of actions or decisions • Feedback is used to alter what the system will do in future Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

  27. Neural Networks • Computer system that simulates functioning of a human brain • Capable of retrieving information even if some neural nodes fail • Quickly modifies stored data as a result of new information • Discovers relationships and trends in large databases • Solves complex problems for which all the information is not present Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

  28. Neural Networks (continued) Figure 11.7: Neural Network Software Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

  29. Other Artificial Intelligence Applications • Genetic algorithm: approach to solving large, complex problems in which a number of related operations or models change and evolve until the best one emerges • Intelligent agent: programs and a knowledge base used to perform a specific task for a person, a process, or another program • Also called intelligent robot or bot Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

  30. An Overview of Expert Systems • Behave similarly to a human expert in a particular field • Use heuristics to arrive at conclusions or make suggestions • Explore new business possibilities • Increase overall profitability • Reduce costs • Provide superior service to customers and clients Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

  31. When to Use Expert Systems • Provide a high potential payoff or significantly reduce downside risk • Capture and preserve irreplaceable human expertise • Solve a problem that is not easily solved using traditional programming techniques • Develop a system more consistent than human experts Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

  32. When to Use Expert Systems (continued) • Provide expertise needed at a number of locations at the same time or in a hostile environment that is dangerous to human health • Provide expertise that is expensive or rare • Develop a solution faster than human experts can • Provide expertise needed for training and development to share the wisdom and experience of human experts with many people Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

  33. Components of Expert Systems Figure 11.8: Components of an Expert System Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

  34. Components of Expert Systems (continued) • Knowledge base • Stores all relevant information, data, rules, cases, and relationships used by expert system • Create a knowledge base by : • Assembling human experts • Using fuzzy logic • Using rules, such as IF-THEN statements • Using cases Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

  35. Components of Expert Systems (continued) Figure 11.9: The Relationships Among Data, Information, and Knowledge Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

  36. Components of Expert Systems (continued) Figure 11.10: Rules for a Credit Application Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

  37. The Inference Engine • Inference engine • Seeks information and relationships from knowledge base • Provides answers, predictions, and suggestions, like a human expert • Backward chaining: starts with conclusions and works backward to supporting facts • Forward chaining: starts with facts and works forward to conclusions Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

  38. The Explanation Facility • Allows a user or decision maker to understand how the expert system arrived at certain conclusions or results • Example: a doctor can find out the logic or rationale of diagnosis made by a medical expert system Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

  39. The Knowledge Acquisition Facility • Provides convenient and efficient means of capturing and storing all components of knowledge base • Acts as an interface between experts and knowledge base Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

  40. The Knowledge Acquisition Facility (continued) Figure 11.11: Knowledge Acquisition Facility Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

  41. The User Interface • Specialized user interface software is employed for designing, creating, updating, and using expert systems • Main purpose of user interface: makes development and use of an expert system easier for users and decision makers Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

  42. Expert Systems Development Figure 11.12: Steps in the Expert System Development Process Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

  43. Participants in Developing and Using Expert Systems • Domain expert: individual or group who has the expertise or knowledge one is trying to capture in the expert system • Knowledge engineer: individual who has training or experience in design, development, implementation, and maintenance of an expert system • Knowledge user: individual or group who uses and benefits from the expert system Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

  44. Participants in Developing and Using Expert Systems (continued) Figure 11.13: Participants in Expert Systems Development and Use Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

  45. Expert Systems Development Tools and Techniques • Traditional programming languages • Special programming languages for AI applications • LISP, PROLOG • Expert system shells • Collections of software packages and tools used to design, develop, implement, and maintain expert systems Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

  46. Expert Systems Development Tools and Techniques (continued) Figure 11.14: Expert Systems Development Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

  47. Applications of Expert Systems and Artificial Intelligence • Credit granting and loan analysis • Stock picking • Catching cheats and terrorists • Budgeting • Games Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

  48. Applications of Expert System and Artificial Intelligence (continued) • Information management and retrieval • AI and expert systems embedded in products • Plant layout and manufacturing • Hospitals and medical facilities Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition

  49. Applications of Expert System and Artificial Intelligence (continued) • Help desks and assistance • Employee performance evaluation • Virus detection • Repair and maintenance Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition