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Aquatic Biomes

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Aquatic Biomes

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  1. Aquatic Biomes

  2. Freshwater Ecosystems • Ponds, Lakes, Streams, Rivers, Wetlands • Plants and animals are adapted to the low salt content http://www.elementfour.com/about-water-overview

  3. Rivers and Streams • Water always flows in one direction • Begins at a source called HEADWATERS; ends at a MOUTH • Could start from an underground stream or snowmelt • Slope of the landscape determines direction and speed of flow • Sediment: material deposited by water, wind or glaciers, can be silt, mud or sand

  4. Lakes and Ponds • Inland body of standing water • Oligotrophic: nutrient poor lakes; often found high in mtns; few plant and animal species; • Eutrophic: nutrient rich lakes; found at lower altitudes; several plant and animal species

  5. Lakes and Ponds • Seperated into 3 zones based on sunlight • Littoral Zone: closest to the shore; shallow water; sunlight reaches the bottom; many producers and consumers live here (frogs, turtles, worms, crustaceans, insect larvae, fish) • Limnetic Zone: open water, well lit, plankton dominant; many fishes • Profundal Zone: minimal light; deepest area of lakes; colder and lower in oxygen; limited # of species

  6. Lakes and Ponds http://library.thinkquest.org/04oct/01590/intro/freshwater.html

  7. Wetlands • Marshes, swamps, bogs • Land that is saturated with water and support aquatic plants • Plants: duckweed, pond lilies, cattails, mangroves, cypress, willows • Animals: amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals

  8. http://water.epa.gov/type/wetlands/marsh.cfm

  9. Estuaries • Formed where freshwater from a river or stream meets salt water from an ocean • Plants: algae, seaweed, marsh grass, Mangrove trees • Animals: worms , oysters, crabs, ducks, geese, turtles, shrimp • Everglades National Park in Florida

  10. http://waynesword.palomar.edu/lmexer10.htm

  11. Marine Ecosystems • Marine algae produces over 50% of the Earths oxygen • Evaporation from oceans provide the majority of moisture for precipitation- rain and snow • Separated into distinct zones like lakes and ponds

  12. Intertidal Zones • Narrow band where ocean meets land • Organisms must be adapted to constant change due to the changing of the tides • Also divided into vertical zones: • Spray Zone: dry most of the time, only sprayed during high tide • High Tide Zone: under water only during high tide • Mid Tide Zone: under water twice per day during changing of tides • Low Tide Zone: always covered with water unless tide is extremely low. Most populated of all areas

  13. Open Ocean • Photic Zone: upper pelagic zone; shallow enough sunlight can penetrate the water; as depth increases light decreases; plankton and other plants live here as well as animals such as fish, sea turtles, jellyfish, whales, dolphins • Aphotic Zone: lower part of pelagic zone; no sunlight; cold and dark; fewer organisms • Benthic Zone: ocean floor; sand silt and dead organisms; some sunlight in shallow benthic zones; fish, octopus, squid, shrimp, crabs, tubeworms • Abyssal Zone: deepest region; cold water; mostly clams, crabs, fishes live here; depend mostly on food drifting down from higher levels

  14. http://www.exploringnature.org/db/detail.php?dbID=13&detID=2475http://www.exploringnature.org/db/detail.php?dbID=13&detID=2475

  15. Coastal Ocean and Coral Reefs • Very diverse ecosystem • Coral Polyps: symbiotic relationship with an algae; algae provides food for coral and coral provides protection for algae • Animals: sea slugs, octopi, sea urchins, sea stars, fish

  16. http://sites.duke.edu/environ181s_01_s2011_alg22/home/