2012 Science Standards of Learning InstitutesManassas, Richmond, Abingdon, RoanokeSummer 2012
Welcome and Goals for the Day • To improve science instruction by providing district-level trainers with professional development resources focused on facilitating students' scientific content understanding through science processes and practices. • Participants will: • Understand the changes in the Science SOL; • Engage in a discussion about rigorous science instruction; • Use science processes/practices as a way knowing and doing science; • Gain a better understanding of discourse in science instruction; and • Discuss formative and summative assessment practices.
Why is it important to have a rigorous and relevant science education program? Take 30 seconds to write down three reasons why it is important to teach science well. Talk to the person next to you and agree on one you would want to share.
Four reasons to teach science well Ready, Set, SCIENCE, National Research Council, p.3 Science is an enterprise that can be harnessed to improve the quality of life on a global scale. Science may provide a foundation for the development of language, logic, and problem-solving skills in the classroom. A democracy demands that its citizens make personal, community-based, and national decisions that involve scientific information. For some students, science will become a lifelong vocation and avocation.
Workforce Needs The seminal National Academy of Sciences study, Rising Above the Gathering Storm (2006), argues that, absent a serious and rapid response, the U.S. will lose quality jobs to other nations, lowering our standard of living, reducing tax revenues, and weakening the domestic market for goods and services.
A New Trend Line in Student Achievement “Virginia's public schools are beginning a new trend line with the implementation of more challenging standards and assessments. The goal is to build on the progress already made under the Standards of Learning program and ensure that all graduates possess the knowledge and skills needed for success in college and the workplace.” - Dr. Patricia I. Wright Superintendent of Public Instruction
Rigor in the Science SOL International Center for Leadership in Education
Virginia Science Standards of Learning Virginia Science Standards of Learning Goals The purposes of scientific investigation and discovery are to satisfy humankind’s quest for knowledge and understanding and to preserve and enhance the quality of the human experience. Therefore, as a result of science instruction, students will be able to achieve the following objectives: 1. Develop and use an experimental design in scientific inquiry. 2. Use the language of science to communicate understanding. 3. Investigate phenomena using technology. 4. Apply scientific concepts, skills, and processes to everyday experiences. 5. Experience the richness and excitement of scientific discovery of the natural worldthrough the collaborative quest for knowledge and understanding.
Virginia Science Standards of Learning • Virginia Science Standards of Learning • Goals • 6. Make informed decisions regarding contemporary issues, taking into account the following: • public policy and legislation; • economic costs/benefits; • validation from scientific data and the use of scientific reasoning and logic; • respect for living things; • personal responsibility; and • history of scientific discovery.
Virginia Science Standards of Learning • Virginia Science Standards of Learning • Goals • 7. Develop scientific dispositions and habits of mind including: • curiosity; • demand for verification; • respect for logic and rational thinking; • consideration of premises and consequences; • respect for historical contributions; • attention to accuracy and precision; and • patience and persistence. • 8. Develop an understanding of the interrelationship of science with technology, • engineering and mathematics. • 9. Explore science-related careers and interests.
Investigate & Understand Many of the standards in the Science Standards of Learning begin with the phrase “Students will investigate and understand.” This phrase was chosen to communicate the range of rigorous science skills and knowledge levels embedded in each standard. Limiting a standard to one observable behavior, such as “describe” or “explain,” would have narrowed the interpretation of what was intended to be a rich, highly rigorous, and inclusive content standard.
Investigate & Understand “Investigate” refers to scientific methodology and implies systematic use of the following inquiry skills: observing; classifying and sequencing; communicating; measuring; predicting; hypothesizing; inferring; defining, controlling, and manipulating variables in experimentation; designing, constructing, and interpreting models; and interpreting, analyzing, and evaluating data.
Investigate & Understand “Understand” refers to various levels of knowledge application. In the Science Standards of Learning, these knowledge levels include the ability to: recall or recognize important information, key definitions, terminology, and facts; explain the information in one’s own words, comprehend how the information is related to other key facts, and suggest additional interpretations of its meaning or importance; applythe facts and principles to new problems or situations, recognizing what information is required for a particular situation, using the information to explain new phenomena, and determining when there are exceptions;
Investigate & Understand “Understand” refers to various levels of knowledge application. In the Science Standards of Learning, these knowledge levels include the ability to: • analyze the underlying details of important facts and principles, recognizing the key relations and patterns that are not always readily visible; • arrange and combine important facts, principles, and other information to produce a new idea, plan, procedure, or product; and • make judgments about information in terms of its accuracy, precision, consistency, or effectiveness.
When instruction is academically rigorous, students actively explore, research and solve complex problems to develop a deep understanding of core academic concepts. Increasing rigor does not mean more and longer homework assignments, rather, it means time and opportunity for students to develop and apply habits of mindas they navigate sophisticated and reflective learning experiences. Students weigh evidence, consider varying viewpoints, see connections, identify patterns, evaluate outcomes, speculate on possibilities and assess value. What Does Rigorous Science Instruction Look Like?
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2009 Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) Science Results for 15-Year-Old Students 29% of students scored at or above level 4—the level at which students can complete higher order tasks. Highlights from PISA 2009, p. 26
Trend in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2007 At grade 4 & 8, the United States had no measurable differences between average science scores from 1995 to 2007. Highlights from TIMSS 2007, p. 33
Sample TIMMS Item Grade Four Grade Eight
2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) Science Results Grade 4 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), 2009 Science Assessment, p. 8 34% of students perform at or above Proficient
2009 NAEP Science Results Grade 8 • National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), 2009 Science Assessment, p. 25 30% of students perform at or above Proficient
2009 NAEP Science Results Grade 12 21% of students perform at or above Proficient • National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), 2009 Science Assessment, p. 46
NAEP Science Results 1969-1999 NAEP 1999 TRENDS IN ACADEMIC PROGRESS • EXECUTIVE SUMMARY xi
Assessments – Then and Now Third Grade – 2012 (TEI) Third Grade – 2003
Assessments – Then and Now Fifth Grade – 2010 Fifth Grade – 2003
Assessments – Then and Now Earth Science – 2010 Earth Science – 2003
Summary of Changes • Use consistent terminology and content in the vertical alignment of the standards • Update standards to include references to additional energy sources • Move examples and details to the Curriculum Framework • Added the“nature of science” to the majority of the .1 stems • Use of current applications to reinforce science concepts added to .1 SOL http://www.doe.virginia.gov/testing/sol/frameworks/science_framewks/2010/science_sol_crosswalk_03_10.pdf
Revisions to Science SOL: K-12 Introduction to the Standards • Added the introduction to all grade level Science SOL on Web site • Added the preface • Additional goal added related to understanding the interrelationship of science with technology, engineering, and mathematics (#8) • Application section added to encourage connections across content and subject areas as well as connections to technology, engineering, and mathematics http://www.doe.virginia.gov/testing/sol/frameworks/science_framewks/2010/science_sol_crosswalk_03_10.pdf
Revisions to Science SOL: Elementary • Elementary Overall Revisions • Revised the order of the .1 standard to offer consistency from kindergarten through the Physics standards • Added a strong emphasis on the use of data • Added models in grades three through five • Used consistent scientific vocabulary throughout the standards • Added the introduction to the solar system in grade four http://www.doe.virginia.gov/testing/sol/frameworks/science_framewks/2010/science_sol_crosswalk_03_10.pdf
Revisions to Science SOL: Middle Middle School Overall Revisions • Revised to include simulations and models in the .1 standards throughout middle school • Addition of current applications of science to reinforce science concepts included in each .1 standard • Consistent use of the term thermal energy • Updated to include current science understandings such as Pluto and domains http://www.doe.virginia.gov/testing/sol/frameworks/science_framewks/2010/science_sol_crosswalk_03_10.pdf
Revisions to Science SOL: High School High School Overall Revisions • Revised to include simulations and models in the .1 standards throughout high school • Moved details of science content to the Curriculum Framework • Updated to include current science understandings such as Pluto and domains • Added applications of science such as organic and biochemistry (CH.6) and nanotechnology (PH.12) • Added the design process to PH.1 http://www.doe.virginia.gov/testing/sol/frameworks/science_framewks/2010/science_sol_crosswalk_03_10.pdf
Charge for the Day Participants will: • Engage in a discussion about rigorous science instruction; • Use of science processes/practices as a way knowing and doing science; • Gain a better understanding of discourse in science instruction; and • Discuss formative and summative assessment practices.