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Preventive Dentistry

Preventive Dentistry

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Preventive Dentistry

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  1. Preventive Dentistry Teaching & Research Section of Preventive Dentistry

  2. Section 4 Epidemiology of Periodontal Disease

  3. Periodontal disease Index for periodontal condition • OHI-S • PLI • GI • CPI Preventive dentistry

  4. (1)OHI-S ( DI-S ) Preventive dentistry

  5. (1)OHI-S (DI-S & CI-S) Preventive dentistry

  6. (2) Turesky Modification of the Quigley Hein Index • Ramfjord index teeth Preventive dentistry

  7. (2) Turesky Modification of the Quigley Hein Index • Plaque discoloration Preventive dentistry

  8. (2) Turesky Modification of the Quigley Hein Index 0=No plaque 1=Slight flecks at the cervical margin 2=thin continuous band (≤1 mm) at cervical margin Preventive dentistry

  9. (2) Turesky Modification of the Quigley Hein Index 3=A band of plaque >1 mm but < 1/3 of the area 4=covering 1/3 - 2/3 of the area 5=covering ≥ 2/3 of the area Preventive dentistry

  10. (3) GI Löe and Silness Index Preventive dentistry

  11. (3)GI (Löe and Silness) Preventive dentistry

  12. (4 ) CPI CPI probe • Gingival bleeding • Subgingival calculus • PD Preventive dentistry

  13. (4 ) CPI ≥20years old 15~20years old Preventive dentistry

  14. (4 ) CPI 0=Healthy 1=Bleeding observed 2=Calculus detected, all the black band visible 3=Pocket 4-5 mm Preventive dentistry

  15. (4 ) CPI 4=Pocket ≥6 mm (black band not visible) X=Excluded sextant(<two teeth) 9=not recorded Preventive dentistry

  16. (4 ) CPI Preventive dentistry

  17. (4 ) CPI Preventive dentistry

  18. Feature of distribition 15 years old Preventive dentistry

  19. Feature of distribition 1 Area • Developing Vs Developed countries • Rural Vs Urban 2 time Preventive dentistry

  20. Influential factors 3 population • age • gender male > female • race Preventive dentistry

  21. Related factors • oral hygiene • smoking(duration、frequency、type) • nutrition • systemic diseases Preventive dentistry

  22. Section 5 Epidemiology of Other Oral Diseases

  23. Other oral diseases epidemiology • Oral cancer • Dental fluorosis • Cleft lip and palate • Dentofacial anomalies • Oral mucosal diseases Preventive dentistry

  24. Oral cancer China 0.7,Thailand 4.6,India 12.6 /100,000 • District: one of the most common tumor in east south Asia • Time, age • Gender: male > female • Race Preventive dentistry

  25. Oral cancer • District • Time, age • Gender: male > female • Race 口腔癌 Preventive dentistry

  26. Dental fluorosis • Dean’s index • Based on the 2 most severely affected teeth (record the status if they are the same and record the less severe if they are not) Preventive dentistry

  27. Dental fluorosis Preventive dentistry

  28. Dental fluorosis • Fci = ( n×W ) / N • Fci=〔(0.5× Questionable)+(1× Very mild )+…+(4× Severe )×100%〕/ N Preventive dentistry

  29. Dental fluorosis • Public health significance Preventive dentistry

  30. Dental fluorosis Feature of distribution • area • urban, rural • age • dentition Preventive dentistry

  31. Cleft lip and palate • One Cleft lip or palate case per 500~700 infants • factors Preventive dentistry

  32. Cleft lip and palate • area • urban, rural • gender Preventive dentistry

  33. Section 6 Oral Health Survey & Evaluation

  34. The survey and evaluation of oral health • Purpose • Item • Index • Method • Sample size • Error and prevention Preventive dentistry

  35. Item • General item • Oral health assessment • Questionnaire Preventive dentistry

  36. Questionnaire data collection • Collect information that cannot be observed. knowledge practice attitude belief Preventive dentistry

  37. Index • Caries---- • Periodontal diseases---- • Dental fluorosis---- Preventive dentistry

  38. Methods Census(普查)----a complete enumeration of the umits to be studied (mass examination) : no sampling error : not practical, time consuming Preventive dentistry

  39. Sampling --measurements on part of the population  --less resource demanding --quicker to complete --more cost-efficient --detail examination possible Preventive dentistry

  40. Sampling Methods Most important issue is whether the sample can adequately represent the bigger population • Simple random sampling 单纯随机抽样 • Systematic sampling 系统抽样 • Stratified sampling 分层抽样 • Cluster sampling 整群抽样 Preventive dentistry

  41. Simple random sampling sample population • Draw lots, throw a die • Random number table • Computer generated random number Preventive dentistry

  42. Systematic sampling • In a list select every u unit in a list starting from a random number ( from 1 to uth) 1 N U U+k U+2k Preventive dentistry

  43. Stratified sampling • Subdivide the population into strata and draw sample from each stratum independently • Common strata: age, gender, districts, etc sample sample population Preventive dentistry

  44. Cluster sampling • Subdivide the population into several clusters (blocks of units) • All elements in these selected cluster are studied sample cluster cluster cluster population Preventive dentistry

  45. Sampling Methods ??? Preventive dentistry

  46. Multi-stage sampling • Sampling can take place in stages by repeating or combining the above sampling • More efficient for large scale surveys Preventive dentistry

  47. Pilot survey • Include only one or two age groups to collect the minimum amount of data • 12 years +one other age group Preventive dentistry

  48. OH survey ----pathfinder • to include the most important population subgroups • A stratified cluster sampling technique • Variations in level, severity and need Preventive dentistry

  49. Index age groups • 5 yrs children ( primary teeth) • 12 yrs children ( permanent ) • 15 yrs adolescents • 35-44 yrs adults • 65-74 yrs elders Preventive dentistry

  50. Sample size • N=K×Q/P • N subjects, p proporation • Q=1-P Preventive dentistry