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MCOM 101

MCOM 101. Introduction to Advertising and Public Relations. Introduction to Advertising. Defining Advertising: “Advertising is paid communication through a non-personal medium in which the sponsor is identified and the message is controlled .”. Advertising & Society. Advantages :

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MCOM 101

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  1. MCOM 101 Introduction to Advertising and Public Relations

  2. Introduction to Advertising • Defining Advertising: • “Advertising is paid communication through a non-personal medium in which the sponsor is identified and the message is controlled.”

  3. Advertising & Society • Advantages: • It provides information about the product. • Advertising help people to make a quick selection. • Advertising help to increases the standard of living. • Advertising provides wide choice to consumers • Advertising helps to fix the prices by creating competition among various brands. • Advertising dispels wrong impressions by providing information about various things. • Advertising supports media as it is the primary source of income. • Advertising helps to create awareness in the society through public service messages. • Advertising also has an entertainment value.

  4. Role of an advertising agency • What are we selling? • -- An analysis of the product or service in relation to competition. This includes not only tangibles, such as price, size, etc, but also intangibles such as the attitudes and feelings engendered in the consumer from exposure to the product/service. • To whom are we selling it? -- Development of a consumer profile – age, sex, socio-economic group, geographical location, etc. • Why are we selling it? --What particular need or want does the product address. • Where are we selling it? • ---What media will be most appropriate – TV, newspapers, magazines, radio, etc. • When are we selling it? Are there certain times of the day, days of the week, and months of the year when it is more effective to advertise? Agency Structure While advertising agencies are fairly adept at tailoring their structure to the needs of specific clients

  5. How Advertising Agency Works • Agency Structure While advertising agencies are fairly adept at tailoring their structure to the needs of specific clients, a full-service advertising agency involves four main departments. • Account Service • Creative Services • Media Planning and Buying • Account Planning and Research

  6. Introduction • PR-Management, Practice, Process and Communication • Public Relations is influencing behavior to achieve objectives through the effective management of Relationships and Communication. • Deliberate: PR activity is intentional. It is designed to influence, gain understanding, provide information and obtain feedback. • Planned: Organized activity, Solution to the problem

  7. Functions • Performance: Policizing, support for Community concerns • Public Interest: Should be beneficial to organizations and its publics • Two Way Communication: Disseminate Information, Solicit feedback • Management Function: Strategic and Integral part of Decision Making

  8. Process of Public Relations • Research and Analysis: concern, problem, situation • Policy Formulation: Recommendations, Possible action taken • Programming: Communication programs, objectives, audience, strategy, timeline • Communication: Press Release, News letter, Campaign, Conference , Event • Feedback: Attitudes, Opinions, sales go up, organization enhance reputation • Assessment: Evaluations, Efforts, Issues, Opportunities

  9. PR Agencies in Pakistan 1. Xenith- • Affiliated with Fleishman-Hillard • Perception Management 2. Momentum • First one to use online social media for its clients (Interactive Strategies) • PR & Event Management • Coca Cola, EFU, Metro C & C 3. Bridge PR: • Expertise in Media Relations • (Media Planning, Media Training, Media Monitoring..) & Event Management Service (Public Intercepts, Workshops..) • PR in financial sector, Government Sector, Education Sector, IT and Social Sector • Mezan Bank, Bahria University, Kalia Group

  10. 4. Mediators: • Affiliated with Burson-Marsteller • Permanent and Project based client both • Affiliated to Economist Group in UK takes care Business Conferences in Pakistan • HP, GE, Oxford University Press, GSK, UNICEF 5. SHAMROCK: • Offer marketing solutions • PR, Marketing Services, Publications, Event management • DHL, Etihad Airways, Samsung Electronics, Pak-Qatar Takaful, Mobilink 6. Asiatic Public Relations: • Affiliated with Hill & Knowlton • Now JWT in Pakistan • Blue-Chip Clients, Govt Relations, Clients Relation, Creative Designs, CSR & Sustainability • LG, Jubliee Life Insurance, Emirates, Zong, Tetra Pack

  11. 7. Syntax: Synergy Group • Microsoft, Nokia, Dawlence, JS investment, Bank Alfalah, Gillete, Tony & Guy 8. CMC (Corporate Marketing and Communications) • Image Marketing • Corporate Strategic Counseling • Advertising • Media Planning and Buying • Publications: • South Asia, Slogan, Enterprise • Internationally affiliated to Ketchum

  12. Introduction to Television

  13. Television news package • 1. OC: On Camera • 16-17 sec • Also known as intro. of news package, • Narrated by anchor/ news caster • 2. VO: Voice Over • 1: 50 min. • Narrated by reporter

  14. Tips for Voice Over: • Short Sentences to maintain continuation • VO has to be subject to the script • Repeat entire sentence if fumble • Have a tape recorder with you and practice as must as possible • Self-criticism and self-reflection • Proper pace of voice • Narrate not read

  15. Contents of News Package… • 3. SOT(Sound On Tape)/ SOUND BITE: • 1 SOT should be of 10-15 sec. • 1 package should have 2-4 SOTs • POV(point of view) or expert opinion of stakeholders in an issue • Not scripted • 4. VOX-POP: No script, general public opinion • 5.PTC: Piece To Camera • Direct closing remarks from reporter. Reporter usually reports from venue. C42 has a different style • Avoid using English words in Urdu News, No repetition of ideas.

  16. Camera Handling and Shooting Techniques • -Interaction between camera and reporter is very important • -Reporter must explain scene/Shots to the Cameraman • -Always plan your shoot: Discuss the story and make a tentative list of shots • -Check the audio: There two audio channels (General Sound, Background Sound) • -Shoot Enough “cut-aways” ; anticipate shoots and events

  17. Camera Handling and Shooting Techniques… • -Duration of each shot should be 7-10 sec. • -Hold your shots: Avoid excessive panning and zooming • -Sequence of the shots: Wide-Mid-Close up- Extreme Close up • -Don’t jump over shots- Use cut away shot if jump is necessary • -Close up- Main Objects • -Big Close up- Extreme Close up: Helps in reading expressions: Forehead to Chin usually used in SOT/Thematic Interview, Vox-Pop • -News Package: Excessive zooming is not recommended.

  18. Camera Handling and Shooting Techniques… • -Pan: Horizontal move • Tilt: Vertical move of camera • -Documentary: 50% close 25% Mid 25% Wide • -Framing and Composing: angels of object above, below, right, left, centralized • -Depth in background is highly recommended • -Obstacle behind the subject for instance tree will make the background dead

  19. Camera Handling and Shooting Techniques… • -Depth of Field: Objects can be used in the background, give viewer a sense of depth, should not block the eye. • -Wide angle shot will provide a much better depth

  20. Depth of Field

  21. Head/Nose Room: • -Space for the head in interview and soundbites in frame, minimal head room for Big Close Up shots • -Nose room where subject is looking, maintain 2/3 subject-screen ratio • -Mic must be 5-6 inch away from speaker • -Change positions to have different frames • -Subject must look at reporters

  22. 1. Too much

  23. 2. Appropriate

  24. 3. Too Less

  25. Nose Room

  26. Camera Handling and Shooting Techniques… • -Don’t shoot everything from eye level • -Odd/Different angle shots: apart from usual shots • -Create your own shots • -Close up shots/depth in expressions • -Get people in your scenes: Human element, moving picture • -Tripod is equally important for static shots, avoid jerks

  27. Rule of 180

  28. Lighting & Camera • -Avoid high contrast in high lighting situation (High light/Sun light) • -Avoid White background • -Subject has to be in front of camera • -If subject is against lighting increase aperture or make a shadow with the hand • -Switch from auto to manual exposure

  29. Camera Shots • -A wide shot contains landscape but gives the viewer a more specific idea of setting. A long shot may show the viewers the building where the action will take place. • -A medium shot contains the characters or a character from the waist up. From this shot, viewers can see the characters' faces more clearly as well as their interaction with other characters. This is also known as a social shot • -A close-up contains just one character's face. This enables viewers to understand the actor's emotions and also allows them to feel empathy for the character. This is also known as a personal shot. • -An extreme close-up contains one part of a character's face or other object. This technique is quite common in horror films, particularly the example above. This type of shot creates an intense mood and provides interaction between the audience and the viewer...

  30. Camera Angles • -A bird's eye angle is an angle that looks directly down upon a scene. This angle is often used as an establishing angle, along with an extreme long shot, to establish setting. • -A high angle a camera angle that looks down upon a subject. A character shot with a high angle will look vulnerable or small. These angles are often used to demonstrate to the audience a perspective of a particular character. The example above demonstrates to us the perspective or point of view of a vampire. As a viewer we can understand that the vampire feels powerful. • -An eye-level angle puts the audience on an equal footing with the character/s. This is the most commonly used angle in most films as it allows the viewers to feel comfortable with the characters. • -A low angle is a camera angle that looks up at a character. This is the opposite of a high angle and makes a character look more powerful. This can make the audience feel vulnerable and small by looking up at the character. This can help the responder feel empathy if they are viewing the frame from another character's point of view.

  31. Camera Movements • Composers of films also use camera movement to shape meaning. The following are some examples of common camera movements and how they can be used to shape meaning in films. • -A crane shot is often used by composers of films to signify the end of a film or scene. The effect is achieved by the camera being put on a crane that can move upwards • -A tracking shot and a dolly shot have the same effect. A tracking shot moves on tracks and a dolly shot is mounted on a trolley to achieve the effect in the example above. This camera movement is used in a number of ways but is most commonly used to explore a room such as a restaurant. By using a tracking shot or a dolly shot the composer of a film gives the viewer a detailed tour of a situation. It can also be used to follow a character. • -Panning is used to give the viewer a panoramic view of a set or setting (Horizontal movement of camera). This can be used to establish a scene • -Tilting Vertical movement of camera. • -Tilt up: Camera Moves Up • -Tilt Down: Camera Moves down

  32. Television News • Recorded Television Report: • Reporter: Does research on the assigned report , consult resources and prepares the draft for news report • Script Editor: Checks for Language, Factual Accuracy • News Director: Finally gives the approval for news report • Reporting team reaches location, records the report and brings it back to studio for editing • Once report is finalized and approved, finalized copy is then sent for broadcasting

  33. Live Reporting • Live Reporting and News Gather is enabled through DSNG (Digital Satellite News Gathering) or OB Van (Outdoor Broadcasting Van). • Outside broadcasting (OB) is the electronic field production oftelevision programs from a mobile remote broadcast television studio. • Professional Video Camera  and microphone signals are received into the OB van  for processing, recording and possibly transmission. • The mobile Production Control Room (PCR) is known as a production truck.

  34. DSNG

  35. Production Control in OB van

  36. Television Team (Cast & Crew) • Television Crew • Technical Team (Cameramen, Audio Engineer, Videographer..) • Content Team (Researcher, Script Writer, Screen Play Writer, Dialog Writer…) • Television Cast • Host, Performers, Actors, Speakers, Facilitators, Artists

  37. Pre-Production Team • Location manager: Does research regarding location, responsible for making arrangements related to location.. • Make-up artist: Provides make up services to artists • Researcher: Researches about the given subject • Script Writer: Develops the initial story line, develops it into script, Finalizes the content related to program • Set designer: Responsible for designing set inside studio according to the demand of production team • Screenplay writer: Adapts the script for screen, develop the content to make it suitable for screen • Dialog Writer: Writes the dialogs, exact content to be spoken/narrated on screen by performers

  38. Production Team • Boom Mic operator: Boom Mic is attached to a pole, The principal responsibility of the operator is microphone placement, to hold the microphone as close to the actors or action as possible without allowing the microphone or boom pole to enter the camera's frame

  39. Boom Mic

  40. Production Team • Camera Team: Camera Team includes a chief cameraman and various camera persons depending on the camera set, camera team records all the action of the floor.

  41. Production Team • Jib Operator: A jib is useful for getting high shots, or shots which need to move a great distance horizontally or vertically, without the expense and safety issues of putting a camera operator on a crane for a crane shot or laying track for a camera dolly.

  42. Production Team • Floor manager: A floor manager is a member of the crew of a television show. The floor manager is responsible for giving information from the director in the control room, to the crew on the studio floor, and then back to the director. • Master Control Room Manager: • Master control is the technical hub of a broadcast operation common among most over-the-air television stations and television networks. • Amaster control room would comprise of following equipment: • Video monitors • Videotape machines (used to record the live broadcast) • Video servers • Satellite receivers • Transmission equipment (that allows over-the-air transmission from studio to TV networks)

  43. Production Team • Executive Producer: The role of the Executive Producer is to oversee the work on behalf of the studio. They will ensure the program is completed on time, within budget, and to agreed artistic and technical standards. • Senior Producers: • Overseeing team members and delegating tasks • Devising timescales and ensuring projects stay within a designated budget • Structuring projects and devising efficient processes • Signing-off work and checking it is of the highest quality • Providing knowledgeable creative input to all campaigns

  44. Production Team • Associate Producers: • Often referred to as the 'AP', an Associate Producer generally assists the producer in putting the TV program or film together. • Duties may include writing, editing, organizing scripts, running the teleprompter in news casts, or helping the editor by making beat calls.

  45. Stages of Production-Pre Production • The Key Steps in Pre-Production: • Idea Generation • Research • Development of Concept • Approval of the Idea • Script Writing/Story Lines are crafted • Breakdown the Script/Shooting List • Make a Rough Schedule

  46. Pre Production Cont’ • Set Designing/Set Construction • Confirm Locations/Location Recce • Budget Your Shoot • Hire Talent and Crew • Lock the Schedule • Dry Rehearsals/Dress Rehearsals • Checking availability & booking of Equipment • Booking of editing shifts

  47. Production Stage • Production is the actual taping of the TV show or shoot. Cast and crew are assembled, and the director will orchestrate the taping and work to shoot as quickly as possible. Production may take place in a studio or on location. Location shooting is almost always more work, as production equipment needs to be brought to the location along with the cast and crew. Most TV shows prefer to use established sets since this makes the production process easier.

  48. Post-Production • Post-Production involves: • Video editing • Audio-Visual Treatment of the content • Sound editing and mixing • Dubbing • Visual effects • Computer-generated graphics • Preparing Program promos and Press Ads.

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