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Design and Implementation of Cooperative Learning

Design and Implementation of Cooperative Learning

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Design and Implementation of Cooperative Learning

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  1. Design and Implementation ofCooperative Learning Karl A. Smith STEM Education Center / Technological Leadership Institute / Civil Engineering – University of Minnesota & Engineering Education – Purdue University ksmith@umn.edu - http://www.ce.umn.edu/~smith Grinnell College June 3, 2014

  2. Workshop Layout • Welcome and Overview • Further Reflection on Readings/Discussion • Formal Cooperative Learning Rationale and Principles • Formal Cooperative Learning Strategies • Cooperative Problem-Based Learning • Cooperative Jigsaw • Cooperative Project-Based Learning • Aligning outcomes, assessment, and instruction • Design and Implementation 2

  3. Overall Goal • Build your repertoire of cooperative learning strategies as well as skills and confidence for implementing them 3

  4. Workshop Objectives • Participants will be able to : • Describe key features of cooperative learning and effective, interactive strategies for facilitating learning • Build on key elements of Course Design Foundations • How People Learn (HPL) • Understanding by Design (UbD) process – Content (outcomes) – Assessment – Pedagogy • Explain key features of and rationale for Cooperative Learning • Identify connections between cooperative learning and desired outcomes of courses and programs • Participants will begin applying key elements to the design on a course, class session or learning module 4

  5. Cooperative Learning is instruction that involves people working in teams to accomplish a common goal, under conditions that involve both positive interdependence (all members must cooperate to complete the task) and individual and group accountability (each member is accountable for the complete final outcome). Key Concepts •Positive Interdependence •Individual and Group Accountability •Face-to-Face Promotive Interaction •Teamwork Skills •Group Processing http://www.ce.umn.edu/~smith/docs/Smith-CL%20Handout%2008.pdf

  6. Active Learning: Cooperation in the College Classroom • Informal Cooperative Learning Groups • Formal Cooperative Learning Groups • Cooperative Base Groups Notes: Cooperative Learning Handout (CL College-912.doc) www.ce.umn.edu/~smith/docs/CL%20College-912.doc 6

  7. Book Ends on a Class Session Smith, K.A. 2000. Going deeper: Formal small-group learning in large classes. Energizing large classes: From small groups to learning communities. New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 2000, 81, 25-46. [NDTL81Ch3GoingDeeper.pdf] 7

  8. Active Learning: Cooperation in the College Classroom • Informal Cooperative Learning Groups • Formal Cooperative Learning Groups • Cooperative Base Groups See Cooperative Learning Handout (CL College-912.doc) 18

  9. Formal Cooperative Learning Task Groups

  10. Design team failure is usually due to failed team dynamics (Leifer, Koseff & Lenshow, 1995). It’s the soft stuff that’s hard, the hard stuff is easy (Doug Wilde, quoted in Leifer, 1997) Professional Skills (Shuman, L., Besterfield-Sacre, M., and McGourty, J., “The ABET Professional Skills-Can They Be Taught? Can They Be Assessed?” Journal of Engineering Education, Vo. 94, No. 1, 2005, pp. 41–55.)

  11. http://www.aacu.org/advocacy/leap/documents/Re8097abcombined.pdfhttp://www.aacu.org/advocacy/leap/documents/Re8097abcombined.pdf 21

  12. Engineering Total Design – 36% Computer applications – 31% Management – 29% Civil/Architectural Management – 45% Design – 39% Computer applications – 20% Top Three Main Engineering Work Activities Burton, L., Parker, L, & LeBold, W. 1998. U.S. engineering career trends. ASEE Prism, 7(9), 18-21. 22

  13. Teamwork 23

  14. Reflection and Dialogue • Individually reflect on the Characteristics of High Performing Teams. Think/Write for about 1 minute • Base on your experience on high performing teams, • Or your facilitation of high performing teams in your classes, or • Or your imagination • Discuss with your team for about 3 minutes and record a list

  15. Characteristics of Effective Teams? • students are aware of and build on each other’s strengths • They respect and trust each other • All contribute unique/valuable content • Each person feels they can contribute meaningfully • They working on a project with freedom to explore • People know their roles and take pride in their contribution • Clearly defined tasks • External pressure • There are team and environmental aspects • Deadline & schedule • People take turns – contribute their piece and step back – they care about the project (i.e., group not dominated by one or two people) • Successful team has one person who drives the team • Distributed responsibility • Willing to step back and contribute • ? • Next step – what makes an effective team member 25

  16. A team is a small number of people with complementary skills who are committed to a common purpose, performance goals, and approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable • SMALL NUMBER • COMPLEMENTARY SKILLS • COMMON PURPOSE & PERFORMANCE GOALS • COMMON APPROACH • MUTUAL ACCOUNTABILITY --Katzenbach & Smith (1993) The Wisdom of Teams

  17. Cooperative Learning is instruction that involves people working in teams to accomplish a common goal, under conditions that involve both positive interdependence (all members must cooperate to complete the task) and individual and group accountability (each member is accountable for the complete final outcome). Key Concepts •Positive Interdependence •Individual and Group Accountability •Face-to-Face Promotive Interaction •Teamwork Skills •Group Processing http://www.ce.umn.edu/~smith/docs/Smith-CL%20Handout%2008.pdf

  18. Teamwork Skills • Communication • Listening and Persuading • Decision Making • Conflict Management • Leadership • Trust and Loyalty

  19. Active Learning: Cooperation in the College Classroom • Informal Cooperative Learning Groups • Formal Cooperative Learning Groups • Cooperative Base Groups See Cooperative Learning Handout (CL College-912.doc) 29

  20. Professor's Role in • Formal Cooperative Learning • Specifying Objectives • Making Decisions • Explaining Task, Positive Interdependence, and Individual Accountability • Monitoring and Intervening to Teach Skills • Evaluating Students' Achievement and Group Effectiveness 30

  21. Decisions,Decisions Group size? Group selection? Group member roles? How long to leave groups together? Arranging the room? Providing materials? Time allocation? 31

  22. Personal Response System • Socrative.com (Socrative Student) • My room 678635 32

  23. Optimal Group Size? • 2 • 3 • 4 • 5 • 6 33

  24. Formal Cooperative Learning Task Groups Perkins, David. 2003. King Arthur's Round Table: How collaborative conversations create smart organizations. NY: Wiley.

  25. Group Selection? • Self selection • Random selection • Stratified random • Instructor assign • Interest 35

  26. Formal Cooperative Learning – Types of Tasks • Jigsaw – Learning new conceptual/procedural material • 2. Peer Composition or Editing • 3. Reading Comprehension/Interpretation • 4. Problem Solving, Project, or Presentation • 5. Review/Correct Homework • 6. Constructive Controversy • 7. Group Tests

  27. Cooperative Jigsaw JIGSAW SCHEDULE COOPERATIVE GROUPS (3-4 members) PREPARATION PAIRS CONSULTING/SHARING PAIRS TEACHING/LEARNING IN COOPERATIVE GROUPS WHOLE CLASS REVIEW www.jigsaw.org/‎ 37

  28. Formal Cooperative Learning – Types of Tasks • Jigsaw – Learning new conceptual/procedural material • 2. Peer Composition or Editing • 3. Reading Comprehension/Interpretation • 4. Problem Solving, Project, or Presentation • 5. Review/Correct Homework • 6. Constructive Controversy • 7. Group Tests

  29. Challenge-Based Learning • Problem-based learning • Case-based learning • Project-based learning • Learning by design • Inquiry learning • Anchored instruction John Bransford, Nancy Vye and Helen Bateman. Creating High-Quality Learning Environments: Guidelines from Research on How People Learn 54

  30. Challenge-Based Instruction Cycle The Challenges Generate Ideas Go Public Legacy Cycle Test Your Mettle Multiple Perspectives Research & Revise https://repo.vanth.org/portal/public-content/star-legacy-cycle/star-legacy-cycle 55

  31. START Apply it Problem posed Learn it Identify what we need to know Problem-Based Learning 56

  32. First Course Design Experience UMN – Institute of Technology • Thinking Like an Engineer • Problem Identification • Problem Formulation • Problem Representation • Problem Solving Problem-Based Learning

  33. Problem Based Cooperative Learning Format TASK: Solve the problem(s) or Complete the project. INDIVIDUAL: Estimate answer. Note strategy. COOPERATIVE: One set of answers from the group, strive for agreement, make sure everyone is able to explain the strategies used to solve each problem. EXPECTED CRITERIA FOR SUCCESS: Everyone must be able to explain the strategies used to solve each problem. EVALUATION: Best answer within available resources or constraints. INDIVIDUAL ACCOUNTABILITY: One member from your group may be randomly chosen to explain (a) the answer and (b) how to solve each problem. EXPECTED BEHAVIORS: Active participating, checking, encouraging, and elaborating by all members. INTERGROUP COOPERATION: Whenever it is helpful, check procedures, answers, and strategies with another group. 60

  34. 62 http://scaleup.ncsu.edu/

  35. http://www.ncsu.edu/PER/scaleup.html

  36. http://web.mit.edu/edtech/casestudies/teal.html#video

  37. http://tile.uiowa.edu/ 65

  38. Inside an Active Learning Classroom • STSS at the University of Minnesota http://vimeo.com/andyub/activeclassroom “I love this space! It makes me feel appreciated as a student, and I feel intellectually invigorated when I work and learn in it.”

  39. http://www.udel.edu/inst/ 68

  40. Project-Based Cooperative Learning Karl A. Smith Engineering Education – Purdue University Civil Engineering - University of Minnesota ksmith@umn.edu http://www.ce.umn.edu/~smith Design-Build Project 69

  41. Project Based Cooperative Learning Format TASK: Complete the project. INDIVIDUAL: Engage. Pay attention to task and group dynamics. COOPERATIVE: One design from the group. Make sure everyone is able to explain the final design and strategies used to complete the project. EXPECTED CRITERIA FOR SUCCESS: Everyone must be able to explain the final design and strategies used complete the project. EVALUATION: Best design within available resources or constraints. INDIVIDUAL ACCOUNTABILITY: One member from your group may be randomly chosen to explain (a) the design and (b) the team process. EXPECTED BEHAVIORS: Active participating, checking, encouraging, and elaborating by all members. INTERGROUP COOPERATION: Whenever it is helpful, check procedures, answers, and strategies with another group. 70

  42. Design-Build Project • The engineering method is design under constraints – Wm. Wulf, Former President, National Academy of Engineering • The engineering method (design) is the use of state-of-the-art heuristics to create the best change in an uncertain situation within the available resources– Billy Koen, Mechanical Engineering Professor, UT-Austin, author Discussion of the Method, 2003, 2011 71

  43. Design-Build Project • Teams of 3-4 – randomly assigned • Experience an iteration of a design project life cycle in about 30 minutes • Goal is for all teams to meet the specification (design requirement) • Attend to both the task and the team work 72

  44. Team Member Roles • Task Recorder • Process Recorder • Time Monitor • Materials Manager 73

  45. Process Observer • Observer/ Process Recorder (non participant role) 74

  46. 75

  47. 76

  48. Design objective Design and build a tower at least 25 cm high that can support a stack of textbooks. The tower is built from index cards and office tape. Design rules Materials are 100 index cards and one roll of office tape Cards can be folded but not torn No piece of tape can be longer than 2 inches Tower cannot be taped to the floor Tower must be in one piece, and easily transported in one hand Time to design and build: 15 minutes Height is measured from the ground to the lowest corner of the book placed on top Tower must support books for at least 10 seconds before the measurement is made Room must be cleaned up before measurements are made.