6 From Empire to Independence 1750-1776
From Empire to Independence1750-1776 • The Seven Years’ War in America • The Emergence of American Nationalism • “Save Your Money and Save Your Country” • From Resistance to Rebellion • Deciding for Independence • Conclusion
Chaplain Jacob Duché leading the first prayer in the First Continental Congress at Carpenter's Hall, Philadelphia, September 1774
Chapter Focus Questions • What were the conflicts that led to the Seven Years’ War, and what were the outcomes for Great Britain, France, and the American Indians? • Why did American nationalism develop in the aftermath of the French and Indian War?
Chapter Focus Questions (cont’d) • What was Great Britain’s changing policy toward its North American colonies in the 1760s? • What were the assumptions of American republicanism? • How did the colonies attempt to achieve unity in their confrontation with Great Britain?
The First Continental Congress Begins to Shape a National Political Community • 1774: Philadelphia, First Continental Congress • 12 colonies met for seven weeks forging a community of national leaders. • Interests distinct from that of the mother country. • Patrick Henry: “I am not a Virginian but an American.”
The Albany Congress of 1754 • The agenda included • Consideration of a collective colonial response to the conflict with New France and the Indians of the interior; • Negotiation of a settlement with the Iroquois Confederacy.
The Albany Congress of 1754 (cont'd) • The Conference resulted in • The Iroquois leaving without an agreement; • Adoption of Benjamin Franklin’s Plan of Union, though this was rejected by colonial assemblies.
France vs. Britain in America • Three points of contention between France and England for control of North America: • The North Atlantic Coast, guarded by the fort at Louisbourg and the mouth of the St. Lawrence • The border region from Niagara Falls to Lake Champlain, vital for the fur trade
France vs. Britain in America (cont'd) • The Ohio country, the valley bisected by the Ohio River, and its Indian peoples
Frontier Warfare • 1756: war between Britain and France • Early French victories in New York • British expelled French-speaking farmers of Acadia from their homes. • Many moved to Louisiana where they became known as “Cajuns.”
Frontier Warfare (cont'd) • Anglo-French war also led to widespread Indian attacks on frontier settlements, killing thousands and throwing settlers into a panic.
The Conquest of Canada • Prime Minister William Pitt committed to winning the war and eliminating all French competition • 1758 Easton Conference: Ohio Indians promised their lands would be protected, turning many frontier natives against the French • Over 50,000 British and colonial troops
The Conquest of Canada (cont'd) • British forces captured Louisburg, the French forts on the New York border, Quebec, and lastly, Montreal.
The Conquest of Canada • In the Treaty of Paris of 1763, the French lost all its North American mainland possessions.
A treaty between the Delaware, Shawnee, and Mingo (western Iroquois) Indians and Great Britain, July 13, 1765
The Struggle for the West • British policies shocked and threatened western Indians. • Revitalization movement • Ohio Indians and Neolin, the Delaware Prophet • Holy war to restore native lands and culture • Pontiac, Ottawa confederacy • Proclamation of 1763 confirmed promises of the Easton Conference
The Struggle for the West (cont'd) • Colonists opposed Proclamation / westward migration continued • Concessions—Native anger and resentment
A protest against the Stamp Act from newspaper editor William Bradford
An American Identity • The Seven Years War affected the American colonists by • making them proud to be members of the British empire; • noting important contrasts between themselves and the British; • strengthening a sense of identity among the colonists. • A nationalist perspective emerged.
The Press, Politics, and Republicanism • The 1735 libel trial of New York City editor John Peter Zenger was a bold stroke for freedom of the press. • The weekly newspaper was an important means of intercolonial communication. • Newspapers became a lively means of public discourse.
The Press, Politics, and Republicanism (cont'd) • The notion of republicanism emerged from warnings of government’s threats to liberty.
The Sugar and Stamp Acts • The costs of the Seven Years War and the subsequent defense of the North American empire added to the huge government debt. • In 1764, Parliament passed the Sugar Act to raise revenue from the colonies. • Colonial protest arose in the cities, especially Boston where a nonimportation movement soon spread to other cities.
The Sugar and Stamp Acts (cont'd) • James Otis, Jr. developed the doctrine of no taxation without representation.
The Stamp Act Crisis • Colonial concerns included the long-term constitutional implications regarding representation of the colonists in the British government. • Beginning with Virginia, nine colonies passed resolutions denouncing the Stamp Act.
The Stamp Act Crisis (cont'd) • Boston emerged as a center of protest with attacks on offices and homes of British officials. • To counter the growing violence, the Sons of Liberty was formed to encourage more moderate forms of protest.
The Stamp Act Crisis • British merchants worried about the effects of the growing non-importation movement petitioned Parliament to repeal the Stamp Act. • In 1766, Parliament repealed the Stamp Act but passed the Declaratory Act, asserting control over the colonies “in all cases whatsoever.”
The Townshend Revenue Acts • In 1767, Charles Townshend, Chancellor of the Exchequer • New revenue measure • import duties on lead, glass, paint, paper, and tea • Townshend believed Americans would not oppose “external” import taxes. • John Dickinson: Parliament had no right to tax goods to raise revenue on America.
The Townshend Revenue Acts (cont'd) • Despite protests, very little sentiment for independence existed in America.
An Early Political Boycott • In 1767, the Boston town meeting revived the tactic of nonimportation to oppose Townshend’s taxes • Other port cities responded with their own nonimportation campaigns. • Appeals to stimulate local industry had strong appeal in small towns and rural areas.
An Early Political Boycott (cont.) • Colonial newspapers paid much attention to women supporting the boycott. • During 1769, all the colonies but New Hampshire adopted nonimportation legislation. • These efforts reduced colonial imports from Britain by 41 percent.
The Massachusetts Circular Letter • Boston and Massachusetts were the center of the agitation over the Townshend Acts. • Samuel Adams drafted a circular letter denouncing the Revenue Acts and calling for the colonies to “harmonize with each other” in opposition.
The Massachusetts Circular Letter (cont'd) • British efforts to suppress the circular letter failed and violence against British officials continued. • Rumors of mob rule and riots in Boston led to the British army occupying the city.
The Boston Massacre • The British troops stationed in the colonies were a source of scorn and hostility. • Confrontations arose in New York City and Boston between colonists and British soldiers. • In Boston, competition between British troops and townsmen over jobs was a source of conflict.
The Boston Massacre (cont.) • March 5, 1770 • Confrontation between British soldiers and a crowd ended in the Boston Massacre that left five dead • Parliament had already repealed most of the Revenue Acts, keeping the tea tax to save face.
Committees of Correspondence • In the early seventies, several colonies established committees of correspondence to: • share information; • shape public opinion; and • build cooperation among the colonies.