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Safety, Security & Environment in the Straits of Malacca & Singapore

Safety, Security & Environment in the Straits of Malacca & Singapore

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Safety, Security & Environment in the Straits of Malacca & Singapore

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  1. Safety, Security & Environment in the Straits of Malacca & Singapore David Rosenberg Professor of Political Science Middlebury College

  2. Energy Consumption ProjectionsDrysdale, Asian Energy Forum, IEEJ, 2005

  3. Shipping Traffic, Strait of Malacca Number and Type of Vessels, 1999 - 2005

  4. www.southchinasea.org

  5. Malacca Strait Choke Points

  6. User States: Japan USA China Coastal States: Indonesia Singapore Malaysia Other Stake-holders: Shippers IGO’s Security Concerns: Piracy Poaching (IUU) Pollution Safety Terrorism Trafficking ------------------------------ Burden-sharing ! Competing Security Priorities

  7. Strait of MalaccaJune 2005-August 2006“War Risk Zone”Lloyds/Joint War Committee USA: Global War on Terrorism CSI- Container Security Initiative PSI – Proliferation Security Initiative RMSI – Regional Maritime Security Initiative JAPAN: Anti-Piracy Policies OPK - Ocean Peacekeeping

  8. Transboundary Pollution - Smoke Haze

  9. Smoke Haze Air Pollution Satellite Monitoring NOAA, Nov. 3, 1997 CRISP, Mar. 9, 2006

  10. Oil Slicks, CRISP

  11. Fisheries

  12. Piracy - Risk & Cost • 2005: 9 “actual and attempted attacks”/ 63,000 ships = .00014  Low risk • Average loss = < $5000  Low cost • Little incentive for shippers to report attacks or take prevention measures • Indonesia’s estimated annual loss due to illegal fishing = $ 4 Billion

  13. Disadvantages: Less accessible targets More complex More expensive Less visible Advantages: Could be spectacular Devastating potential Maritime Terrorist Attack? Summary: No terrorist attack or hijacking yet Risk is low, but consequences huge

  14. Common Interests UNCLOS, Article 43: “User states & border states should cooperate i. to establish and maintain navigational and safety aids; and ii. to prevent, reduce, and control pollution from ships.”

  15. Progress Report • “Eyes in the Sky” + MALSINDO patrols • IMB Piracy Reporting Centre • IMO ISPS - International Ship and Port Facility Security Code • Malacca Strait Council • MEH - Marine Electronic Highway • ReCAAP - Regional Cooperation Agreement on Combating Piracy and Armed Robbery against Ships in Asia • TTEG – Tripartite Technical Experts Group

  16. ProposalsKuala Lumpur Meeting, 18-20 Sept. 2006"Safety, Security & Environment in the Straits of Malacca & Singapore’ 1. TTEG Forum on Safety of Navigation + TTEG Forum on Maritime Security 2. Common interest projects: - Remove shipwrecks - Set up HNS Response Centre - AIS transponders for small ships - Tide, current, wind measurement system - Replace/maintain ATN's 3. Funding Burden-sharing - Voluntary contributions? - Pay-as-you-go user fees? - Funding mechanism?

  17. Enclosure Movements • Resource control movement • Naval security movement • Conservation movement For whosoever commands the sea commands the trade; whosoever commands the trade of the world commands the riches of the world, and consequently the world itself. Sir Walter Raleigh (1554?–1618)