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Aviation Physiology HELICOPTERS PowerPoint Presentation
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Aviation Physiology HELICOPTERS

Aviation Physiology HELICOPTERS

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Aviation Physiology HELICOPTERS

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  1. Aviation PhysiologyHELICOPTERS

  2. Terminal Objectives • Be familiar with the avoidance, recognition, and treatment of hypoxia/hyperventilation, aviation related trapped gas hazards, and decompression sickness.

  3. Enabling Objectives 1.1 Define hypoxia/hyperventilation. 1.2 Recall four subjective/objective symptoms of hypoxia. 1.3 State the emergency procedures for a suspected case of hypoxia.

  4. Enabling Objectives 1.4 State the NATOPS oxygen usage rules. 1.5 State three symptoms of hyperventilation. 1.6 State the emergency procedures for a suspected case of hyperventilation.

  5. Enabling Objectives 1.7 Recall the causes, symptoms, and treatment of an inflight ear block, inflight sinus block, barodontalgia, and trapped intestinal gas. 1.8 Recall methods for avoiding an inflight ear block, inflight sinus block, inflight tooth pain, and trapped gas. 1.9 Define decompression sickness ( DCS) 1.10 State the situations where DCS is likely to occur.

  6. Enabling Objectives 1.11 Distinguish between Type I and Type II DCS. 1.12 State the symptoms for Type I and Type II DCS. 1.13 State the NATOPS rules regarding scuba diving and flying. 1.14 State the emergency treatment for suspected DCS inflight.

  7. AVIATION PHYSIOLOGY • HYPOXIA • HYPERVENTILATION • TRAPPED GAS • DECOMPRESSION SICKNESS

  8. Hypoxia

  9. A Condition That Occurs When Insufficient Oxygen Is Supplied To Body Tissues

  10. Causes Of Hypoxia • Cabin altitude >10K’ without O2 • Loss of cabin pressure (KC-130) • Anemia (A/C exhaust, blood donation, smoking, illness) • Chemical and Biological Warfare • Blood pooling due to prolonged sitting during long flights

  11. TYPES OF HYPOXIA • ANEMIC • HISTOTOXIC • STAGNANT • HYPOXIC

  12. ANEMIC HYPOXIA • Reduced oxygen carrying capacity of the blood... • TRAUMA • CARBON MONOXIDE • BLOOD DONATION

  13. ANEMIC HYPOXIA • Types of toxic substances: • Aspirin • Nitrates • sulfanilamide's • Reductions due to conditions that effect red blood cell count: • Sickle cell anemia • Malnutrition • Sepsis

  14. HISTOTOXIC HYPOXIA • Reduction in the ability of tissues to utilize oxygen... • ALCOHOL • DRUGS

  15. Stagnant Hypoxia Pooling increases, vision begins to fade(gray-out). Blackout occurs due to a lack of blood to the brain. During prolonged mission flights blood may begin to pool in the extremities

  16. Stagnant Hypoxia • Specific conditions: • Heart failure • Shock • Arterial spasm • Occlusion of blood vessels from tissue edema • Embolus • Thrombus • Plaques • Infarcts

  17. 18,000 ft Sea Level HYPOXIC HYPOXIA A REDUCED AMOUNT OF OXYGEN IN THE INSPIRED GASES …ALTITUDE

  18. HYPOXIC HYPOXIA • Reduction of alveolar O2 tension • Interferes with gas exchange in two areas: • Ventilation • Diffusion Ventilation caused by: • Reduced barometric pressure • Laryngospasm • Severe asthma • Hypoventilation

  19. HYPOXIC HYPOXIA • Reduction of alveolar O2 tension • Interferes with gas exchange in two areas: • Ventilation • Diffusion Diffusion caused by: • Pulmonary edema • pneumothorax • Pulmonary embolism • Embolism • Congenital heart defects

  20. SUBJECTIVE SYMPTOMS • Tingling sensation • Dizziness • Fatigue • Air hunger • Euphoria • Hyperventilation

  21. OBJECTIVE SYMPTOMS • Increased breathing rate • Cyanosis • Confusion • Loss of muscular coordination • Unconsciousness

  22. HYPOXIA TREATMENT • OXYGEN 100% • CHECK EQUIPMENT • DESCEND • COMMUNICATE • CONTROL BREATHING

  23. HYPERVENTILATION

  24. Excessive rate and/or depth of breathing resulting in reducedCO2 levels in the brain

  25. CAUSES STRESS/ANXIEY HYPOXIA TREATMENT Same as Hypoxia SYPMTOMS Tingling Rapid Breathing Hot/Cold Flashes Visual Impairment Dizziness Muscle Spasms HYPERVENTILATION

  26. TRAPPED GAS 43,000 feet • EARS • SINUSES • GASTRO-INTESTINAL • TEETH 25,000 feet 18,000 feet 10,000 feet Site level

  27. EAR BLOCK • Causes • Symptoms • Treatment

  28. Yawn Chew Swallow Descend Ear Block Treatment ( Ascent )

  29. Ear Block Treatment ( Descent ) • Valsalva… • Yawn, Chew, Swallow • Slow descent rate • Post Flight Ear Block: • Caused by absorbsion of O2 within the middle ear • TREATMENT = Frequent Valsalva

  30. FRONTALS ETHMOIDS SPHENOID MAXILLARY SINUS BLOCK • CAUSE • SYMPTOMS • TREATMENT

  31. Sinus Block Treatment • Descend • Stop descent / Level Off • Valsalva • Slow descent

  32. GI Tract Trapped Gas • Causes • Symptoms • Prevention / Treatment

  33. Causes of GI Trapped Gas • Diet (food and drinks) • Illness

  34. Trapped Gas Treatment • VENT • SLOW ASCENT RATE • DESCEND

  35. Causes Symptoms Treatment Barodontalgia

  36. Barodontalgia Treatment • DESCENT • PREVENTION: • “Avoid flying for 48-72 hours following major dental work”

  37. Aviation DCS Evolved Nitrogen gas in the body often attributed to a decreased atmospheric pressure. - 18K’ Type I (Non-Serious) Bends Skin Manifestations Type II (Serious) Chokes CNS Multiple Symptoms DECOMPRESSION SICKNESS

  38. FACTORS AFFECTING DCS • Scuba diving • Hydration level • Repeated exposures • Length of time at altitude • Rate of ascent • Altitude (18,000ft)

  39. TREATMENT OF DCS • 100% OXYGEN (If Available) • DESCEND • IMMOBILIZE • SEEK QUALIFIED MEDICAL TREATMENT • RECOMPRESSION ?

  40. SUMMARY • HYPOXIA • HYPERVENTILATION • TRAPPED GAS • DECOMPRESSION SICKNESS

  41. ?