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Chapter 4

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  1. Chapter 4 Role and Style of the OD Practitioner An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

  2. Learning Objectives • Define role of OD practitioner. • Identify your strengths and areas of improvement as potential practitioner. • Experience and practice your style of intervention and influence in a group. An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

  3. You Need a Machete at Sears(part 1 of 2) Sears bought Lands’ End to upgrade its apparel image. Can Sears avoid hurting the image of Lands’ End? Sears is giving apparel operations to Lands’ End management. An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

  4. You Need a Machete at Sears(part 2 of 2) Culture clashes between Lands’ End and Sears. “You need a machete” to get through it all, says former VP. Another says, “… to be successful …, you need to work through a culture, not against it.” An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

  5. Haphazard VersusPlanned Change Change programs do not happen accidentally. Initiated with purpose and require leadership. OD practitioner deals proactively with changing forces. An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

  6. Two Types of Changein an Organization • Random or haphazard change. Forced on organization by external environment. Not prepared for. • Deliberate attempts to modify organization. An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

  7. External Practitioner (part 1 of 2) Not previously associated with client system. Advantages: • Different viewpoint and objectivity. • Not dependent upon the organization. An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

  8. External Practitioner (part 2 of 2) Disadvantages: • Unfamiliar with organization. • Unfamiliar with culture, communication networks, and power systems. An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

  9. Internal Practitioner (part 1 of 3) Member of organization who can be: • A top executive. • Employee who initiates change in work group. • From human resources or OD department. An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

  10. Internal Practitioner (part 2 of 3) Advantages: • Familiar with culture and norms. • Knows power structure. • Personal interest in organization. An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

  11. Internal Practitioner (part 3 of 3) Disadvantages: • May lack specialized skills. • Lack of objectivity. • Likely to accept organizational system. • May lack necessary power and authority. An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

  12. External-Internal Practitioner Team(part 1 of 3) Team combines external practitioner working with internal practitioner. Probably most effective approach. An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

  13. External-Internal Practitioner Team(part 2 of 3) Partners bring complementary resources. External practitioner brings expertise, objectivity, and new insights. Internal practitioner brings knowledge of issues and norms, and awareness of strengths and weaknesses. An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

  14. External-Internal Practitioner Team(part 3 of 3) Provides support to one another. Achieve greater continuity over OD program. Team combines advantages of both while minimizing disadvantages. An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

  15. Our Changing World:One Country’s Resistance to Consulting Grows (part 1 of 2) Management consulting in Germany with public-sector causes a political fight. Involves U.S. and German management firms. An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

  16. Our Changing World:One Country’s Resistance to Consulting Grows (part 2 of 2) Contracts legal but effectiveness questioned. Occurring when German economy in poor state. Management consulting new to public sector. An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

  17. OD Practitioner Styles Practitioners have variety of styles. View styles as degree of emphasis placed upon 2 dimensions: • Effectiveness - degree of emphasis upon goal accomplishment. • Morale - degree of emphasis upon relationships and participant satisfaction. An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

  18. Stabilizer style Cheerleader style Analyzer style Persuader style Pathfinder style Five Practitioner Styles (part 1 of 6) An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

  19. Five Practitioner Styles (part 2 of 6) Stabilizer Style Maintains low profile. Tries to survive by following directives. An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

  20. Five Practitioner Styles (part 3 of 6) Cheerleader Style Places emphasis on member satisfaction. Does not emphasize organization effectiveness. An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

  21. Five Practitioner Styles (part 4 of 6) Analyzer Style Places emphasis on efficiency. Little attention to satisfaction of members. An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

  22. Five Practitioner Styles (part 5 of 6) Persuader Style Seeks compromise between cheerleader and analyzer styles. Achieves average performance. An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

  23. Five Practitioner Styles (part 6 of 6) Pathfinder Style Seeks high organization efficiency and high member satisfaction. Desired style for OD practitioner. An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

  24. Communication. Member roles in groups. Group problem-solving. Group norms and growth. Leadership and authority. Intergroup cooperation. Pathfinder Practitioner Focuses on Six Processes: An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

  25. Figure 4.1Practitioner Styles An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

  26. OD in Practice:Bain & Co. (part 1 of 2) Bain one of largest consulting firms. 30+ years old, offices in 19+ countries. Clients include governments, businesses, and nonprofit organizations. Known for shrewd, suave people it employs. An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

  27. OD in Practice:Bain & Co. (part 2 of 2) Employees secretive about Bain and clients. Builds close relationship with clients. Works directly with chief executive. Focuses on total system. Works collaboratively with clients. An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

  28. Readiness of Organization for OD Key personnel first decide if change needed. Learning goals of OD appropriate? Cultural state of client ready for OD? Key people involved? Members prepared and oriented to OD? An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

  29. The Intervention Intervention is coming between members of organization for purpose of change. Planned activities. External practitioner usually intervenes through top manager. An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

  30. Who Is Client? Who client is becomes complex as practitioner intervenes. Client may be organization, certain divisions, or an individual. An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

  31. Practitioner Role in Intervention Operates on belief that team is basic building block. Concerned with how processes occur. Believes that assisting client, not taking control, will lead to lasting solution. An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

  32. OD Practitioner Skills and Activities Team development. Corporate change. Strategy development. Management development. Employee development. Technology integration. An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

  33. Table 4.1OD Practitioner Skills and Activities An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

  34. Leadership. Project management. Communication. Problem-solving. Interpersonal. Personal. Six Key Skill Areas Critical to Success of Practitioner An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

  35. Figure 4.2Practitioner Skills Profile An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

  36. Forming Practitioner-Client Relationship A system of interacting elements. Consists of: • Practitioner. • Client contact. • Client target system. An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

  37. Figure 4.3System’s View of Change Relationship An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

  38. Initial Perceptions Initial intervention an evaluation by client and practitioner of each other. First impressions important. Relationship based on mutual trust and openness. An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

  39. Concepts of Perception Process whereby individuals give meaning to environment by interpreting and organizing sensory impressions. People behave on basis of what is perceived versus what really is. An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

  40. Perception The process individuals use to interpret and organize sensory impressions. What one perceives can be different from reality. An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

  41. Selective Perception Selectivity of information that is perceived. Process in which people tend to ignore information that conflicts with their values. Accepts other information that agrees with their values. An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

  42. Closure Tendency of individual to fill in missing information in order to complete perception. A person perceives more in the situation than is really there. An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

  43. Figure 4.4Perception Formation and Effect on Relationships An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

  44. Dilemma Interactions Include: • Questions about client’s definition of problem. • Client’s awareness of need for change. • Client’s unrealistic expectations. • Client’s misuse of power. • Value differences with client and practitioner. An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

  45. Practitioner Style Model Practitioner brings knowledge, skills, values, and experience. Client system has own subculture and readiness for change. Together determine practitioner’s style and approaches. An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

  46. Figure 4.5Practitioner Style Model An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

  47. Developing Trust Relationship Openness and trust between practitioner and client essential. Basic responses to build trust: • Questions. • Advising. • Reflection. • Interpretation. • Self-disclosure. • Silence. An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

  48. Creating Climate for Change Practitioner “practice what he or she preaches.” Create climate of openness, authenticity, and trust. An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

  49. Practitioner-Client Relationship Modes (part 1 of 5) • Apathetic • Gamesmanship • Charismatic • Consensus An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

  50. Practitioner-Client Relationship Modes (part 2 of 5) Apathetic Mode Keeps quiet about true ideas with practitioner. Skeptical about change. An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition