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The i-mode Story

The i-mode Story

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The i-mode Story

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  1. The i-mode Story Prepared: Jerry Gao Ph.D.San Jose State Universityemail: jerrygao@email.sjsu.eduURL: http://www.engr.sjsu.edu/gaojerryOct., 2002

  2. Topic: Overview of i-mode Presentation Outline - A Successful Story -> The i-mode story - i-mode services- Basic Features of i-mode- i-mode structure and architecture- i-mode Experience and Lessons- Advantages and Limitations- Comparisons of i-mode and WAP- Challenges and Future of i-mode Jerry Gao Ph.D. 10/2002 All Rights Reserved

  3. Topic: Overview of I--mode The I-mode Story • The most popular wireless data service on the plant is i-mode. • i-mode was developed by DoCoMo ( which means “anywhere” in Japanese) as a subsidiary of NTT (The Japan’s largest telecommunication service provider Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corp.) in 1992. • i-mode (The “i” stands for information) is a wireless technology and service mark. • The i-mode service, begun in Feb. 1999, enable users to access Internet services via their cellular i-mode phones. • With each subscriber on average signing up for three additional services at $1 per month per service, NTT DoCoMo earns $36 per year per subscriber in incremental business. Jerry Gao Ph.D. 10/2002 All Rights Reserved

  4. Topic: Overview of I--mode The i-mode Services • The provided services for I-mode customers: • Voice communications • A large number of sites by simply pressing the i-mode key. • Over a dozen I-mode search engines and sites that provide a lot of information services on sports, stock quotes, maps, weather forecasts, restaurant coupon discounts, and horoscopes. • The convenient and useful mobile commerce services, such as mobile banking, stock trading, and ticket reservations. • i-mode is compatible with Internet e-mail and can also transfer mail between i-mode devices. • Application downloads from more than 1600 web sites. • As of July 2001, there were 25 million subscribers and more than 37,000 i-mode sites, including 1,420 preferred sites. Jerry Gao Ph.D. 10/2002 All Rights Reserved

  5. Topic: Overview of I--mode The Basic Features of i-mode i-mode 2G service has a transmission speed of 9.6 kbps. i-mode has the underlying packet-switching system. i-mode uses SSL or Secure Socket Layer, provided by RSA. i-mode uses Sun Solaris servers on the back end. i-mode service uses compression technology to increase the volume of data that is transmitted. i-mode service uses I-mode browser to interact with users i-mode uses Compact HTML (C-HTML) and proprietary protocol stack. i-mode provides an always-on service -> no dial is needed. Jerry Gao Ph.D. 10/2002 All Rights Reserved

  6. Topic: Overview of i-mode The Basic Features of i-mode • Suite of applications that make up the total iMode Service including: • Browser – currently based on cHTML but changing to xHTML • iMode Email client – Proprietary HTTP Mail • Security Stack – based on SSL 3.0 • iMelody – downloadable ringer tone service using MII • iAnimation – Animated GIF support in grayscale and color • DoCoMo pictograms – downloadable graphics such as a Pokemon (future of Japanese economy) • i-appli Java service supporting application downloads Jerry Gao Ph.D. 10/2002 All Rights Reserved

  7. Topic: Overview of i-mode i-mode Features Jerry Gao Ph.D. 10/2002 All Rights Reserved

  8. Topic: Overview of i-mode i-mode Features Jerry Gao Ph.D. 10/2002 All Rights Reserved

  9. Topic: Overview of i-mode i-mode Structure Connecting to sites, receiving messages and transmitting e-mail are done via the DoCoMo i-mode center. Jerry Gao Ph.D. 10/2002 All Rights Reserved

  10. Client Portal HTTP HTTP HTTP HTTP SSL SSL SSL SSL TCP W-TCP TCP W-TCP IP IP IP IP Topic: Overview of i-mode i-mode Architecture Web Server CGI Scripts etc. CHTML CHTML CHTML CHTML iMode HTTP C-HTML with CHTML-Script Content Jerry Gao Ph.D. 10/2002 All Rights Reserved

  11. Topic: Overview of i-mode i-mode Success • Japan marketed iMode as an experience not a technology • Targeted to consumers • Large, readable screens COLOR • Phone enables (email, melodies, animations, etc.) • Lots of content sites: 500+ official, 15K+ unofficial content provider sites. • Business Model: • Gateways provide email, notification, DoCoMo served content tracks usage • DoCoMo collects fees, takes part of it, and sells packets. They can barely keep up with demand. Jerry Gao Ph.D. 10/2002 All Rights Reserved

  12. Topic: Overview of i-mode Lessons from Japan’s i-mode Success • The big secret of the success of I-mode is that Internet developers can put their web site content online with few changes. • If you keep a customer on the air, DoCoMo or a third party will given you the major cut of the transaction. • Other Japanese merits: • Packet-switched service is always connected. • Pay for exchanged information or data • No need to access network (for example, no dial-up service and time) • Attraction comes from personal value, not Internet hype. • They want to attract ordinary people, not techies. • Keep operations and service simple, technology are hidden. • The service is a viable national technology enclave. • Hardware, network, and software are perfectly matched • Network and device standards are harmonized. Jerry Gao Ph.D. 10/2002 All Rights Reserved

  13. Topic: Overview of i-mode Lessons from Japan’s i-mode Success • Content makers are given choices. • Wild content on the Internet are offered • A trusted service is provided to subscribers • The micro-billing economy encourages consumer purchasing. • Simple Internet standards make everyone’s work easier. • Subscribers use quality handsets. • I-mode handsets are the work of art and standardized. • Complete products are offered from the carrier. • Subscribers have comprehensive billing. • Satisfied subscribers get what they want. • At the beginning of 2001, the i-mode application breakdown is 64% entertainment, 21% information, 9% transaction, and 6% database. • A mature commercial infrastructure contributes to use. • Japanese commercial infrastructure, including hotel, restaurants, taxi companies,and banks, grouped and supported by an i-mode society. Jerry Gao Ph.D. 10/2002 All Rights Reserved

  14. Topic: Overview of i-mode i-mode is Evolving • Video clips being added. • More sound support/voices. • Kjava arrived in 1Q’01. • SSL coming online. • Emphasis is on what end users will find exciting and interesting. Jerry Gao Ph.D. 10/2002 All Rights Reserved

  15. Topic: Overview of i-mode Advantages and Disadvantages Advantages: • iMode technology does not require special language for the mobile unit. It could access all existing web sites by using cHTML (compact HTML). • iMode is accessible by a packet-switched network, meaning that users are always online. • iMode users are charged only for the amount of information downloaded to the iMode unit, not the time they spend at the web sites. • Disadvantages: • iMode service and technology is currently only available in Japan. • iMode is not an entirely open protocol. That limits the drive the developers can make for this technology. Jerry Gao Ph.D. 10/2002 All Rights Reserved

  16. Topic: Overview of i-mode iMode vs. WAP - Network • Neither WAP nor iMode rely on one particular underlying network type. • WAP in Europe has been deployed on a circuit-switched network. • iMode in Japan has been deployed on a packet-switched network. • WAP users will have to endure waiting during connection set-up and being charged for time spent on-line until their network operators upgrade to a packet-switched network. • iMode users enjoys almost-instant downloads and the response times needed for online gaming with their "always-on" network. Jerry Gao Ph.D. 10/2002 All Rights Reserved

  17. Topic: Overview of i-mode iMode vs. WAP - Markup Language • WAP uses WML which is a new language. • iMode uses cHTML which is simply an extended subset of the existing HTML Web standard. • iMode can immediately make use of the skills of current WWW developers, but those interested in producing content for WAP browsers must learn WML from scratch. • As the WWW community migrates away from HTML and towards XML in the next few years, iMode may find that it's short-term stop-gap approach loses out to WAP's longer-term measured approach. Jerry Gao Ph.D. 10/2002 All Rights Reserved

  18. Topic: Overview of i-mode iMode vs. WAP - Deployed Applications • WAP in Europe uses text and no images small screen. • iMode in Japan uses text and color images and larger screen. • WAP is Marketed for business application (banking, stock portfolio, business news, flight booking). • iMode marketed for consumer applications (restaurant guide, fun images, ringing melodies). Jerry Gao Ph.D. 10/2002 All Rights Reserved

  19. Topic: Overview of i-mode Comparison i-mode & WAP Jerry Gao Ph.D. 10/2002 All Rights Reserved

  20. Topic: Overview of i-mode Comparison i-mode & WAP Jerry Gao Ph.D. 10/2002 All Rights Reserved

  21. Topic: Overview of i-mode Market of i-mode & WAP Jerry Gao Ph.D. 10/2002 All Rights Reserved

  22. Topic: Overview of i-mode Future of WAP and i-mode WAP 2.0 iMode on IMT-2000 Current i-mode WAP 1.x WML WML CHTML XML XML WSP WSP HTTP HTTP HTTP WTP SSL TLS SSL/TLS WTLS TL W-TCP W-TCP WDP UDP WDP UDP IP IP IP IP Network Bearer PDC-P Network Bearer Network Bearer IMT 2000 Network Bearer Future Protocol Proposed Stack Jerry Gao Ph.D. 10/2002 All Rights Reserved

  23. Topic: Overview of i-mode Challenges of i-mode • i-mode's content seems to be heavily tied to Japanese culture and may not easily translate to other countries. • CHTML is incompatible with full HTML. • i-mode does not support security layer because it is not required for consumer applications. • i-mode uses the PDC-P network which is not a world standard while other parts of the world like Asia and Europe have circuit switched networks in place. Jerry Gao Ph.D. 10/2002 All Rights Reserved