6.1 Students describe what is known through archaeological studies of the early physical and cultural development of humankind from the Paleolithic era to the agricultural revolution.
Hunter-Gatherers -relied on wild animals and plants for food -moved according seasons to find animals and plants -lived in family and tribal groups -invented tools -learned to control and use fire -developed language -created art Farmers -domesticated, or tamed animals -learned to grow crops -practiced slash-and-burn agriculture -built villages
6.2 Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the early civilizations of Mesopotamia, Egypt, and Kush.
Mesopotamia • Tigris and Euphrates Rivers left silt, which made the soil fertile • unpredictable floods and droughts led to the development of irrigation systems • increases in farming led to a surplus of trade • Egypt • flooding of the Nile left fertile soil • flooding was unpredictable, so irrigation was needed • farming and fishing sustained the populations • traded with Africa, Arabia, and the Mediterranean
Kush • a wetter climate allowed people to extend beyond the Nile • center for trade network (ivory, animal skins, timber)
Mesopotamia • Religion • many gods • bleak view of death • priests with social power • large temples called ziggurats • Social • top: kings, priests, land owners, officials, merchants • middle: farmers and artisans • bottom: enslaved people; could not change rank • Political • priests, then kings, ruled early city-states • Hammurabi’s law code was harsh but protected rights of people
Egypt • Religion • many gods • life after death • priests with social power • pyramids, tombs for afterlife • embalming, preserving bodies for life after death • Social • top: pharaoh, priests, nobles, scribes, officials • middle: artisans, merchants, farmers • bottom: laborers, enslaved people; could change rank • Political • Upper and Lower Egypt united around 3000 B.C. • theocracy: ruled by a pharaoh, or god-like king
Kush • Religion • Egyptian and Kush gods • Social • Egyptian-influenced art and architecture • Egyptian customs, clothing, language, and writing systems • Political • Kush conquered Egypt in 700s B.C. • Kush pharaohs ruled
Egyptian Art and Architecture • designed to emphasis the religious idea of eternal life • art was very formal in paintings and sculptures showing important people alongside gods • pyramids, temples, and government buildings were built of stone • many tomb paintings and artworks show scenes of daily life
6.3 Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structure of the Ancient Hebrews.
Ancient Hebrews • Abraham made a covenant, or agreement, with God in which he promised to obey God in return for God’s protection of the Hebrews. Abraham’s agreement marked beginning of monotheism, belief in a single god. • Moses led the Hebrews out of Egypt in the Exodus and received the Ten Commandments from God. The Ten Commandments became the basis for the civil and religious laws of Judaism. These and other laws emphasized equality and the need to live a good life • The Diaspora was the forced movement of Jews out of Palestine (Israel). • Torah is the first five books of the Hebrew Bible. Tells the origins of humanity and Judaism.
6.4 Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the early civilizations of Ancient Greece.
Greece • City-states shared language and beliefs but had different forms of government. • Many were ruled by an aristocracy, or group of nobles. • Some were controlled by oligarchies, in which a group of powerful people ruled. • Strong individuals called tyrants sometimes seized control, supported by common people. • Athens opened the assembly to all Athenian citizens. • Cleisthenes allowed all citizens to submit laws to the assembly for debate. • Pericles paid public officials so that both rich and poor men could serve if elected. • Limited democracy was established in which all free adult male landowners were citizens. • All citizens participated directly in the government.
Direct Democracy • Gave every Athenian who was a free male over 18 years of age an equal vote in the assembly. • Were better for smaller populations. • Representative Democracy • Citizens elect other people to make decisions for them. • Were better for larger populations like U.S.
Lasting Contributions in Science, Mathematics, History, and Philosophy • Greek thinkers doubted the Gods, they sought to understand the world by studying it. • Used Scientific Methods to develop theories. • Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, Euclid, Thucydides, and Hypatia challenged thinking, widely held beliefs, and still influence modern concepts
6.5 Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the early civilizations of India.
Buddhism • Siddhartha Guatama spent several years searching for a way to escape suffering in life. • He became the Buddha, the enlightened. • Buddhism is based on the Four Noble Truths • People suffer because their minds are not at ease. • Suffering comes from wanting what one does not have. • People can stop suffering by not wanting. • People can stop wanting by following the Eightfold Path, which outlines the right way to live. This leads to nirvana, or the end of suffering.
6.6 Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the early civilizations of China.
Confucius • Taught a code of proper conduct. • Identified five important relationships: ruler/subject; father/son; husband/wife; brothers/friends. • Believed social order, harmony, and good government should be based on family relationships. • Taught that rulers and subjects should respect each other and that people should respect their parents and elders. • Stressed education. • Set clear family and social roles to help avoid conflict.
Han Dynasty • Developed a large government bureaucracy. • Instituted a state exam, testing knowledge of Confucianism, for government positions. • Expanded China’s borders to include northern Vietnam, northern Korea, and southern provinces. • Sent paper, silk, and pottery to the west along the Silk Roads in exchange for sesame seeds, metals, and precious stones. • Were influenced by ideas, such as Buddhism, through interaction along the Silk Roads.
6.7 Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures during the development of Rome.
The Roman Republic • The republic consisted of powerful patricians, or nobles, and the plebeians, or common people. • The plebeians won the right to elect representatives called tribunes. • The Twelve Tables, the law code written in 451 B.C. protected the rights of all citizens. • Three Branches of Government • Executive Branch- Two consuls were elected for one year. They were chief executives of the government and commanders-in-chief of the military. • Legislative Branch- A senate of 300 was chosen from the aristocracy. • Judicial Branch- Eight judges, or praetors, were chosen for one year.
Roots of Christianity • Both a Jew and a Roman subject, Jesus preached justice and compassion. • Jesus’s success and popularity made enemies of the Roman officials. • Jesus was put to death, his disciples, or followers, continued preaching his message. • St. Paul translated the teachings of Jesus into the Greek language which helped to spread Christianity.
7.1 Students analyze the causes and effects of the vast expansion and ultimate disintegration of the Roman Empire.
Legacies of Ancient Rome • The Arts • Epic poetry • Arch and dome • Mosaics and frescoes • Sculpture • Technology • Use of concrete in engineering • Systems of roads • Aqueducts • Government • Legal systems • Republican forms • Culture • - Spread of Christianity • - Influence of Latin and Romance languages
Fall of Rome • Political corruption • High taxes • Barbarian invasions • Moved out of the cities and into the country • Decline in morals and values
7.2 Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of civilizations of Islam in the Middle Ages.
Muhammad’s Teachings • preached monotheistic religion similar to Judaism and Christianity • preached against polytheistic religions • preached that if you believed in Allah, rich and poor would be equal • he taught Muslims, Jews, and Christians were all descendants of Abraham • Qur’an • - the holy book • says people must obey Allah’s commands • Sunnah • It refers to the way Muhammad lived • Provides a model for the duties and the way of life expected of Muslims
Sunnah • It refers to the way Muhammad lived • Provides a model for the duties and the way of life expected of Muslims
7.3 Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, social structures of the civilizations of China in the Middle Ages.
Reunification of China • established civil service examinations • built roads and canals • a law code was written which helped to keep laws uniformed throughout the empire • more advanced agricultural methods increased food production • increased trade with other people • Spread of Buddhism • Han dynasty collapsed and there was chaos and disorder • People were attracted to the ideas of Buddhism to end their suffering
Chinese Inventions • tea • methods of making paper • porcelain • mechanical clock • printing block printing • movable type • explosive powder • paper money • magnetic compass
7.4 Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the sub-Saharan civilizations of Ghana and Mali in Medieval Africa.
Vegetation Zones of Africa • Sahara (desert) • Sahel (transition zone between desert and savannah) • Savannah (open grassland) • Rain forest
Gold and Salt Trade • Salt was mined in the Sahara and traded for salt in the south • Ghana controlled the gold and salt trade • Under the ruler Sundiata, Mali took control of the trade routes
7.5 Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the civilizations of Medieval Japan.
Emperor: A figurehead for the powerful shogun. Shogun: A powerful military leader who ruled in the emperor’s name. Daimyo: Powerful lords who led armies of samurai. Samurai: Warriors who served the shogun and daimyo and received pay in return for military service. Peasants: Most Japanese were poor peasants who had no power. Code of Bushido: A code of conduct that guided the samurai’s behavior. The samurai became great fighters and were loyal to their lords under this code.
Military Society and the Role of the Samurai 1192 – The first shogun rules Japan. 1274-1281 – The Mongols attempt to invade Japan and the samurai improve their combat methods. 1338 – The samurai developed customs like the tea ceremony and flower arranging, as well as, values such as loyalty and bravery. 1500’s – The power of the shogun’s increased. 1603-1868 – The Tokugawa shoguns rule Japan and the samurai began to decline in power.
7.6 Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the civilizations of Medieval Europe.
Kings and Queens: Kings and queens were the greatest lords of Europe, and all nobles and knights were their vassals. Nobles: Nobles were vassals of kings and queens. Many were also lords of lower-ranking nobles and knights. Knights: Knights served their noble lords in exchange for land. Peasants: Peasants owned no land, so they were not part of the feudal system. But many peasants worked on land owned by nobles and knights. Feudalism developed because Europe had weak kings and powerful landowners.
Reasons for the Crusades: Christians wanted to retake the Holy Land from the Muslims. The Crusades: A series of four wars in which the Christians at first captured the Holy Land, but were eventually in all subsequent wars by the Muslims. Effects of the Crusades: Caused a shift in power by weakening the Pope’s power and strengthening the power of kings. The Crusades led Europeans to think of all non-Christians as enemies and persecute the Jews.
7.7 Students compare and contrast the geographic, economic, political, religious, and social structures of the Mesoamerican and Andean civilizations.
The Maya • The four classes of society were the ruling class, the nobility, peasants, and slaves. The god-kings of each city-state and their families made up the ruling class. The nobles were scholars, architects, and merchants. The peasants included farmers and laborers. Slaves were prisoners of war of criminals. • The Maya worshiped more than 160 gods, but they did not believe in a happy afterlife. Mayan rulers performed religious rituals in temples on top of pyramids.
The Aztecs • Aztec society had three main classes. Within the highest noble class, the emperor was at the top, followed by government officials, large land-owners, military commanders, and priests. Merchants and artisans formed the middle class. The lowest class included farmers, fishers, and soldiers. • Waging war was important. When taking a village, Aztecs would often kill everyone except warriors, who would become Aztec slaves. • The Spanish arrived, led by Cortes. Fighting broke out and Montezuma was killed. Diseases such as smallpox weakened the Aztecs. • The Spanish conquered Tenochtitlan.
The Inca • There were two main classes. Nobles ran the government and the army. Commoners included farmers and artisans. There were no slaves • The Inca had a military force of almost 200,000 soldiers. Most soldiers were commoners who served a required period of time. • The steel weapons and horses enabled the Spanish to take control of the Incas. • The last Incan emperor was defeated.
7.8 Students analyze the origins, accomplishments, and geographic diffusion of the Renaissance.
Humanism: The intellectual movement that focuses on human potential and achievements. The revival of classical learning that stressed the study of subjects such as history, grammar, literature and philosophy. Effects of Humanism: Society adopted a more secular view instead of the focus being on religion. The renewed interest in classical culture strengthened the Renaissance. The Renaissance was an explosion of creativity in the arts, literature, and thought from 1300 to 1600.
Renaissance Achievements: Literature: Writers began to use the vernacular(the language of the people). More people could enjoy literature. The Arts: They painted and sculpted realistically emphasizing individuality. They developed the technique known as perspective. Perspective allowed them to produce paintings that looked three-dimensional rather than flat. Science, Engineering, and Mathematics: Artists and Scholars advanced algebra, studied human anatomy, made new inventions, developed new theories about the universe, and created new architecture.
Factors Weakening the Catholic Church • There was a schism, or split, within the church. • Many church officials were seen as corrupt, and were incredibly wealthy. • The sale of indulgences upset many members of the church. • With the use of the printing press, they were able to print bibles in peoples’ native languages. • The Renaissance weakened the church’s authority.