Foot and Mouth Disease Trina Johnson, Cari Ostrom, Carolyn Ritter, Craig Spray, and Lindsay Wilson
What is Foot and Mouth? • Acute viral infectious disease • Begins with fever, followed by the development of vesicles on mouth and feet • Very infectious and spreads rapidly • Wild and domesticated cloven hoofed animals are affected • Rarely fatal, but pregnant animals often abort and dairy cattle may dry up
Universal Symptoms of Foot and Mouth Disease • Shivering • Tender and sore feet • Slobbering and smacking lips • Blisters on hoof, feet, snout, or tongue
Clinical disease and diagnosis All species of cloven-hoofed animals are susceptible to FMD, including domestic livestock and wild ungulates. Clinical signs are essentially similar in all species although the severity may vary.
Specific signs in Cattle • Slobbering and smacking lips • Shivering • Tender and sore feet • Reduced milk yield • Sores and blisters on feet • Raised body temperature
Specific signs in Sheep • Sudden, severe lameness • Lying down frequently and unwillingness to rise • Reluctance to move • Blisters found on the hoof, dental pad and sometimes tongue
Specific signs in Swine • Sudden lameness • Preference to lie down • Loud squeal and hobbling when set into motion • Blisters may develop on snout, tongue and/or hoof
Important!! Swine Vesicular Disease has identical symptoms to FMD. Therefore anyone who sees blisters in pigs must report the sighting as suspected FMD, until laboratory tests prove otherwise.
How it’s spread! Although there are numerous ways this disease can be spread, three surface to the top.
Most predominant paths of transmission are….. • Human intervention • Animal to Animal contact • Airborne transmission
Human intervention • People wearing contaminated clothing, or footwear • Using contaminated equipment I.e. veterinary tools, shovels, etc. • Contaminated vehicles traveling from farm to farm • Using contaminated facilities to house susceptible animals
Animal to Animal contact • Animals carrying the virus are introduced to susceptible herds • Susceptible cows inseminated by infected bulls • Direct contact with infected wildlife
Airborne transmission • Through the air in aerosols from infected animals • Birds can play a substantial role in transmission as well
Ways to Control Foot and Mouth Disease • Vaccination • Surveillance programs • Quarantine procedures • Establishment of control zones • Strict Biosecurity • Reporting of confirmed cases • Using All-In/All-Out • Cleansing and disinfection • Over 250 approved disinfectants (www.ahda.org.uk/disinfectants.htm)
Vaccine Choice • Safe • Potent • Proven protection • Appropriate • Consult National or International Reference laboratory or a manufacturer about the most appropriate strain to use
Vaccine Strains Have Been Selected For Their: • Immunogenicity • Ability to grow well in tissue culture • Broad antigenic spectrum
Individual Herd Vaccination • Reduces the morbidity in adults • Reduces mortality in young • Reduces likelihood of incursion • Can reduce the severity and duration of the disease due to raising the herds immunity level • Combined with good biosecurity control
Advice to Farmers • Keep Livestock separate • Deal with sheep last • Keep yourself clean • Keep the farm secure • Keep unnecessary vehicles away • Clean and disinfect • Avoid visiting other farms • Look for early signs of disease
Eradication of FMD • Slaughter and disposal is essential to eliminate the source • A rapid and complete elimination is necessary
Disposal • Cremation (preferred) • Burial • Rendering
Movement controls • Infected area • Protection zone • Surveillance zone
Emergency Vaccine(Two Objectives) • Dampening down vaccinations • Protective emergency vaccinations to produce an immune belt