The Rise of IslaM - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

world history mr bost n.
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The Rise of IslaM

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  1. World History Mr. Bost

    The Rise of IslaM

  2. Born in 570 A.D. in Mecca Camel herder in Arabia Claimed to be visited by the angel Gabriel in 610 A.D. Same one as in the Christmas story Angel told him to convert people from POLYTHEISM to MONOTHEISM Worship Allah The Story of Muhammad
  3. Muhammad was mocked at first People wanted him dead Escaped to Medina City converted to Islam Began a war with Mecca In 630 A.D., Muhammad took Mecca and most of Arabian Peninsula Muhammad died in 632 Early Islam
  4. One God=Allah Muhammad is his prophet Holy Book=Koran Many early Bible stories are in this book (Adam and Eve, Moses, etc.) Don’t believe Jesus is the son of God What do Muslims believe
  5. No other God but Allah and Muhammad is his prophet Pray 5 times a day Must give to charity Month of Ramadan-fast from sunup to sundown Must travel to Mecca at least once 5 Pillars of Islam
  6. Call to Prayer: Minarets
  7. Cleansing: Ablution Fountains
  8. Prayer: Face Mecca, Service on Fridays
  9. Women must cover their heads
  10. Muhammad is dead…who takes over? Sunni: Muslim leaders should be elected Shia: Muslim leaders should be within Muhammad’s family STILL ARGUE AND AT WAR TODAY!!! Iraq… Sunni Vs. ShiA Islam
  11. Muslims embarked on JIHADS—holy struggles By 640 A.D., Muslims took Syria, Persia, and Egypt By 750 A.D., Islam spread to Spain, Asia and further into Africa Also a result of trade Islam encouraged wealth and profit Traders influenced various regions Allowed religious tolerance in conquered territories Spread of Islam
  12. What were the Crusades? Why were they fought? Crusade Research Paper
  13. Inhabited present-day Turkey Came from Asia; were Muslims Involved in the Crusades Lost the first crusades, and the Christians got Jerusalem in 1099 Muslims got it back in the 2nd crusades in 1187 3rd Crusades: Muslims lost land, but kept Jersusalem The Turks
  14. Renaissance Middle East
  15. Turks formed the Ottoman Empire Sultans were head of the state Later on, Grand Viziers actually governed the country One of the first to use cannons and muskets Began taking land in the Balkans Macedonia, Greece, etc. Took Constantinople in 1453 Capital of Holy Roman Empire We’ll talk about them later Ottoman Empire
  16. Imperialist Middle East
  17. Ottoman Empire quickly grew Europe grew due to industrial revolution Ottoman Empire didn’t Russia also began to grow, fought many wars with the Ottomans Ottomans began losing the Balkans Rise and Fall
  18. Greece and smaller countries were tired of Ottoman control in Balkans Formed the BALKAN LEAGUE and attacked the Ottomans Won the war, Ottomans freed the Balkans Balkan War of 1912
  19. Modern Middle East
  20. Joined for several reasons Wanted Balkans back Hated Russia The Triple Alliance offered them a chance to pay off debts Started off ok, but… Arab Revolt People wanted to be free from Ottoman rule Ottoman Empire lost most of it’s land Ottoman Empire in WWI
  21. British occupied Ottoman lands after the war Turks rebelled, won a war of independence Turkey became a country in 1923 End of an Empire
  22. After WWI, Allies occupied Middle East areas until they’re “ready” for independence UK had: Iraq (puppet king) Palestine Israel Jordan Mandate System
  23. How is this different from colonization? Where do we see this today?
  24. Everyone wanted oil! French and British controlled much of the Middle East Nazi Germany offered these nations independence from Britain and France Many backed Hitler in WWII BLACK GOLD!
  25. After WWII, Israel recognized as an independent state by the UN Jewish homeland Part of Palestine was given to them, part was given to the Arabs (Muslims) Palestine and Arab allies attacked the Jews almost immediately Israel
  26. 1948 Many Arab nations attacked the new Israel Israel defended itself 1956 Israel fought Egypt and won US, UK, and France supported Israel USSR supported the Arabs 1967 Israel beat Egypt again, and took old Jerusalem Arab-Israeli Wars
  27. 1973-1974 Egypt, Syria, Iraq, and Jordan vs. Israel Israel caught off guard at first, but fought back US and USSR helped create a cease-fire 1982 Lebanon guerillas vs. Israel Israel won, guerillas left Lebanon Arab-Israeli Wars
  28. The Fighting Continues today…
  29. Religious law is political law Adopted by Muslim extremist nations: Women must be covered burkas Women cannot leave without men Strange punishments Stoning, mutilation, etc. Men superior, women property Sharia Law
  30. Muslim-dominant country 1978 the People’s Democratic Party of Afghanistan took over the government Women’s rights Ban forced marriage Health care Etc. State Atheism Mosques off Limits Afghanistan
  31. USSR helped build roads and strengthened army New government had Marxist ideas Began torturing rich and religious people US began funding anti-government rebels Soviets invaded US and Saudi Arabia funded the rebels 1989 USSR withdrew New government backed by USSR!
  32. Taliban vs. Temporary Government Taliban supported by Osama Bin Laden’s Al-Qaeda Taliban took Kabul in 1996 Instilled Sharia law Tortured and killed civilians Civil War
  33. Taliban overthrown in 2001 After 9/11 attacks President HamidKarzai took office Taliban and Bin Laden fled to Pakistan Taliban operated there Continued attacks in Afghanistan Bin Laden shot and killed in 2011 Taliban is still active today… Afghanistan now
  34. After WWI, Britain had a mandate in Iraq After WWII, Iraq joined the UN 1948, Iraq fought in Arab-Israeli war 1961-First Kurdish War A population in Northern Iraq wanted independence Ended in a stalemate 1974-Second Kurdish War Iraq launched an offensive against the Kurds 1979-Saddam Hussein took power iraq
  36. Hussein invaded Iran Iraq wanted to attack while Iran was in the middle of a revolution Mimicked trench warfare of WWI Iraq had a good start, but Iran began taking back lost land UN created a ceasefire in 1988 Iraq-Iran War
  37. Iraq invaded Kuwait in 1990 Iraq say they stole oil Iraq couldn’t pay back their debt to Kuwait UN told them to stop Hussein refused UN troops fought Hussein, forcing him out of Kuwait Iraq could no longer make WMDs, and trade stopped with Iraq and UN First Gulf War
  38. REASONS: Iraq had Weapons of Mass Destruction We never found them Saddam Hussein violated human rights Killed the Kurds (minority group) Harbored Al-Qaeda We wanted to spread Democracy 2nd Gulf War
  39. UN Invaded Led by U.S. Occupied Iraq Mostly U.S. troops Captured and executed Hussein in 2006 Ended December 18, 2011 2nd Gulf War
  40. Used to be Persia Taken over by Muslims Went through a period of Shahs Reza Shah Pahlavi took power in WWII, favored by the British Had a Parliament U.S. began supporting as well OIL!!! Iran
  41. The Shah began Westernizing Iran…
  42. Revolution that overthrew the Shah Shah went to Egypt Ayatollah Khomeini made Iran a republic Killed many who opposed him Modernization stopped Schools were “Islamicized” Girls and boys were separated Anything Western was banned including alcohol War with Iraq… Iranian Revolution
  43. The government was reformed Now have Presidents 2005 Mahmoud Ahmadinejad was elected president: Holocaust didn’t happen Nuclear weapons program? (he REALLY wanted them!) Housing terrorists? Didn’t listen to his Parliament They wanted to impeach him Iran Now
  44. He was replaced by Hassan Rouhaniin June 2013He wants to strengthen ties with the west…
  45. Courtesy of Google images and Pictures: