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  1. INQAAHE-2011 CONFERENCE Madrid, Spain Presented by Dr. Sok Uttara Accreditation Committee of Cambodia

  2. Outline of the Presentation • An Overview of INQAAHE • Introduction to the INQAAHE-2011 Conference • Theme and subthemes - Subtheme 1: Globalizing forces and national/regional goals in higher education: emerging issues - Subtheme 2: Professionalization of quality assurance - Subtheme 3: Effective quality processes for diversity, development and sustainability - Subtheme 4: Independence of quality assurance vis-à-vis different stakeholders. • Summary and concluding remarks

  3. An Overview of INQAAHE • What is INQAAHE? - International Network for Quality Assurance Agencies of Higher Education • When was INQAAHE established? - It was established in 1991.

  4. How many members were there when it was established in 1991? - There were only 8 members. • How many members are there now? - There are more than 200 members.

  5. Where is the INQAAHE Secretariat located? - It is located in the Netherlands. • What is its role? - Its main role is to collect and disseminate information on the current and developing theory and practice in the assessment, improvement and maintenance of quality in higher education.

  6. Mission/Vision • To promote good practices in the maintenance and improvement of quality in higher education; • To facilitate research into the practice of quality management in higher education and its effectiveness;  • To provide advice and expertise to assist the development of new quality assurance agencies • To facilitate links between accrediting bodies, especially insofar as they operate across national borders; 

  7. To assist members in determining the standards of institutions operating across national borders; • To permit better-informed international recognition of qualifications;  • To be able to assist in the development and use of credit transfer schemes in order to enhance the mobility of students between institutions within and across national borders;  • To enable members to be alert to dubious accrediting practices and organizations.

  8. Introduction to the INQAAHE-2011 Conference • When was the conference organized? - April 4 - 7, 2011 in Madrid, Spain. • Was organized by the National Agency for Quality Assessment and Accreditation (ANECA).

  9. Theme: Quality Assurance: Foundation for the Future • Subthemes: (1) Globalizing forces and national/regional goals in higher education: emerging issues (2) Professionalization of quality assurance (3) Effective quality processes for diversity, development and sustainability (4) Independence of quality assurance vis-à-vis different stakeholders.

  10. THEME 1: Globalizing forces and national/regional goals in higher education: emerging issues • “QA of internationalization of HE is defined as the process of extending quality assurance procedures to cover international aspects.” (Woodhouse, 2007). (Resp. of QAA) • “Internationalization of QA in HE is defined as the process of integrating an international, intercultural, or global dimension into the purpose, functions or implementation of QA systems and processes.” (Knight, 2003) (Resp. of HE/QAA) • Where QA of internationalization is about the scope of QA activities, internationalization of QA is about methods, somehow going beyond QA’s usual national base.

  11. Benefits of Internationalization

  12. Obstacles to Internationalization • Lack of financial support • Lack of policy/strategy to facilitate the process • Competing priorities • Insufficiently trained or qualified staff to guide the process • Administrative inertia or difficulties • Issue of non-recognition of work done abroad • Lack of opportunities • Lack of reliable and comprehensive information • Lack of understanding of what is involved

  13. Bar chart: Obstacles to Internationalization

  14. Pursuit of International Standards of HEIs and QAAs • Learning outcomes = fitness for purpose • Accountability = responsiveness to the money spent • Inclusiveness = regionalizing and globalizing QA with respect to diversity

  15. Global Networks of QAAs

  16. Mutual Recognition of EQAs • “Recognition of an EQA means an acceptance by another body or agency that the agency’s decisions and judgments are valid. Such recognition may mean that the other body or agency trusts the first agency’s decisions for some purposes of its own” (Woodhouse, 2007).

  17. “Mutual recognition by two or more EQAs is an affirmation by each that it accepts the decisions and judgments of the other (either entirely or for some defined purposes). Such recognition may be based on the agencies having comparable aims and procedures, so it is likely that they would reach the same conclusion in reviewing and passing a judgment on an institution, program or qualification” (The Washington Accord).

  18. The aim of mutual recognition of EQAs is not primarily to benefit the agencies themselves, but to achieve beneficial results for institutions and their students and graduates in terms of mobility, credit transfer, acceptance of qualifications, etc.

  19. Possible benefits of mutual recognition include: • understanding and knowledge of and by each agency • collaboration between agencies • authorization of agencies to operate across country boundaries • enrichment of agencies’ activities • appreciation of the quality parameters underpinning institutions and programs • basis for judgments on the quality of institutions and programs in other jurisdictions, by employers and prospective students • understanding of curricula, standards and criteria across country boundaries

  20. Methods for establishing MR • Scope : comparison of criteria for the award on the basis of outcomes • Quality: independent certification or recognition of an EQAA against a widely agreed code of practice.

  21. THEME 2: Professionalization of quality assurance 1. Professionalization starts with an adequate business plan and policy statement - Object of assessment - Aims of assessment - Independence of EQA - Quality concept and criteria - Decision making process - Financial and human resources - Internal quality assurance

  22. 2.Professionalization asks for a clear process of assessment. The process: - is based on self-assessment and external review. - is based on clear documentation - is well known and made public - respects the internal quality assurance activities of an HEI; the requirements for self-assessment are in line with it. - assures equal treatment and consistency of the judgments

  23. 3. Professionalization asks for professional staff • Selection criteria - From HE or outside? - Discipline experts or generalists? - With experience in management or teaching only? • Competencies - Generic skills: analytical skills; skill for synthesizing; communication skills - Training skills, etc.

  24. Responsibility - Organizer - Facilitator - Secretary/report writer - Track keeper, etc. • Personality - Impartiality - Meticulousness - Espri de corps, etc.

  25. 4. Professionalization asks for external experts • Knowledge about the QAA’s educational system and standards • Being able to provide an independent evaluation of the standards • Relevant expertise and extensive experience in both academic and administrative affairs, particularly in internal and external quality assurance

  26. THEME 3: Effective quality processes for diversity, development and sustainability Quality Assurance (QA) Autonomy Internal QA External QA Accountability Accreditation Self-Analysis External Assessment Deregulation Quality Plan Improvement

  27. Guidelines of Good Practice of an EQAA • SECTION I: ACCOUNTABILITY, TRANSPARENCY, AND RESOURCES 1. The Governance of the EQAA 2. Resources 3. Quality Assurance of the EQAA 4. Reporting Public Information

  28. SECTION II. INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION AND THE EQAA: RELATIONSHIP, STANDARDS, AND INTERNAL REVIEWS 1. The Relationship Between the EQAA and Higher Education Institutions 2. The EQAA's Requirements for Institutional/ Program Performance 3. The EQAA’s Requirements Institutional Self- Evaluation and Reporting to the EQAA

  29. SECTION III. EQAA REVIEW OF INSTITUTIONS: EVALUATION, DECISION, AND APPEALS 1. The EQAA's Evaluation of the Institution and/or Program 2. Decisions 3. Appeals


  31. Indicators for Assessing the Quality of HEIs 1. Integrity and mission • Honesty and transparency in policies and procedures • Interaction with the community and stakeholders • Clarity in mission • Understanding of aims and objectives by all constituents of the institution • Equity and reservation for the disadvantaged groups

  32. 2. Governance and management • Autonomy of governance • Clarity in organizational structure • Delegation of powers • Institutional effectiveness • Comprehensive Strategic plan • Effective Documentation • Modernization of administration

  33. 3. Human resources • Transparent recruitment procedures • Adequacy, qualification and competence of staff • Awards, honours, membership, prizes, medals of learned societies of staff • Effective retention strategies • Support for staff development • Recognition and reward • Appropriate staff workloads • Welfare schemes • Transparent grievance redress

  34. 4. Learning resources and infrastructure • Ownership of land and buildings • Availability, access and sustainability of laboratories, lecture halls, library and information technology facilities • Resources spent on the library and computing facilities matching demands • Adequate health services, sports and physical education and halls of residence • Effective campus maintenance • Optimum utilization • Community use of institutional facilities • Commercial use of institutional facilities

  35. 5. Financial management • Transparency, and integrity in the following: • Funding sources • Ownership of resources • Sustainability of funding • Resource mobilization • Resource allocation • Accountability • Liquidity

  36. Budget for academic and developmental plans • Unit cost of education • Strategic asset management • Matching of receipts and expenditure

  37. 6. Student profile and support services • Transparent admission procedures • Student profile – gender, age, social strata, geographical distribution, foreign students, enrolment by levels of study, age ratio, staff/student ratio, out-of-state enrolment, distribution of entry grade • Drop out and success rate • Progression to employment and further studies • Student achievement • Student satisfaction • Provision for personal and academic counseling • Participation of staff in advising students • Availability of merit-based scholarships

  38. Other scholarships and fellowships • Provision for informal and formal mechanisms for student feedback • Student representation in academic decision-making • Provision for student complaints and academic appeals • Support to student mobility • Recreational activities for students • Placement rate of graduates • Employer satisfaction with graduates • Graduate earning • Alumni association and alumni profile

  39. 7. Curricular aspects • Conformity to the goals and objectives • Relevance to societal needs • Integration of local context • Initiation, review and redesign of programs • Range of program options • Feedback mechanism on program quality • Interaction with employers and academic peers • Demand for various course combinations

  40. 8. Teaching-learning and evaluation • Teaching innovations • Use of new media and methods • Range of co-curricular activities • Skill and competence development • Projects and other avenues of learning • Linkage with institutions, industries and commerce for teaching • Linkage for field training

  41. Monitoring student progress • Continuous internal assessment • Use of external examiners • Timeliness of examination schedule, holding of examinations, evaluation, declaration of results • Remedial and enrichment programs

  42. 9. Research, consultancy and extension • Institutional support for research • Staff active in research • Research students by field of study • Ph.D. awarded per academic staff • Research project per academic staff • Research projects sponsored by industry • Public sector research funding • Ratios of research expenditure and income • Research assistantships and fellowships

  43. Staff supported by external research grants • Existing research equipment • Usefulness of research results for education • Social merits of research • Interdisciplinary research • Student involvement in faculty research • Research quality - Citation of publications, Impact factors, Patents and Licenses • Benefits of consultancy to industry and the public • Community-oriented activities

  44. 10. Quality assurance • Internal quality assurance • Institutional research on quality management • Coordination between the academic and administrative functions • Outcomes of external quality assessments • Academic ambience • Educational reforms

  45. THEME 4: Independence of quality assurance vis-à-vis different stakeholders • QAAs need to work closely with both governments and HEI • QAAs need to maintain independence in carrying out their roles • QAAs often have different objectives and agendas from those of governments and HEIs • The common agenda is quality and quality assurance in HE • The community expectation for QAAs to be independent –but working in partnership with governments and HEIs • Need for collaboration, compromise, negotiation, mutual support and understanding…….

  46. “The role of the EQA in autonomy is to exercise its authority in such a way that the institution’s autonomy is not unreasonably curtailed.” • “The role of the institution in accountability is to behave so conscientiously and with integrity in pursuit of its purposes that the EQA’s validation of the institution’s performance requires only a very simple and inexpensive evaluation.” • “The greater the adverse impact of failure, the more oversight, checking and recording is necessary.” (Woodhouse, 2011)

  47. Summary THEME 1: Globalizing Forces & National Goals The QA community as a whole needs to see the symbiosis of both the global and the regional approaches as being both desirable and possible and work towards it as a common goal. (Lemaitre, 2008)

  48. THEME 2: Professionalization of QA 1. Adequate plan and policy 2. Clear assessment process 3. Professional staff 4. Professional experts