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  1. 代名詞

  2. 代名詞的種類 • 人稱代名詞: I, you, he • 指示代名詞: this, that, these, those… • 不定代名詞: one, some, any, other… • 疑問代名詞: who, what, which… • 關係代名詞: who, which, that…

  3. 人稱代名詞 PARTI. • 主格 • 主詞 • They are happy. • Who is he? • 主詞補語 He was taken to be I. • 受格 • He told me the truth. • I am afraid of snakes.

  4. 人稱代名詞 PARTII. • 所有格 • She is my pretty English teacher. • 兩個以上的人稱代名詞並用的順序: • 單數231 • 複數123 • You, he and I are good friends. • We, you and they are good friends.

  5. 人稱代名詞 PARTIII. • 選選看: • He likes you better than me. He you > me He likes you better than (he likes) me. • He likes you better than I. He > I  you He likes you better than I (like you).

  6. 補語的格用主格或受格?? • I thought it to be ____(he/him). S V O O • I thought it was ____(he/him). S V (that) S V S • They took him to be ____(I/me). • He was taken to be ____(I/me).

  7. It的用法 PARTI. • 代替前面提過的名詞 What color is the shirt? It’s red. • 指天氣、時間、距離 It’s sunny. It’s ten. How far is it to school? • 虛主詞or虛受詞 It’s interesting to play baseball. I think it interesting to play baseball.

  8. It的用法 PARTII. • It is + 加強部分 +that+句子其餘部分 It is I that love you. • 慣用語 make it a rule/custom + toV習慣於 make it possible to V 使~成為可能 take it for granted that S V 視~為理所當然

  9. It v.s. one; them v.s. ones • It代替特定的單N; one代替不特定的單N Do you want this pen? Yes, I want it. Do you want a pen? Yes, Iwant one. • them代替特定的複N; ones則不特定的複N Have you read the books? Yes, I have read them. I don’t like those dresses. I like red ones.

  10. it v.s. that (it同一物;that同一類) • My father bought me a bike last month. But I lost it last night. • The climate of Taipei is much colder than that of Tainan. • The ears of rabbits are longer than those of cats.

  11. EXERCISE • New cars are much more expensive than old (one/ ones). • I have a dog. (Its/ It’s) tail is very short. • I make ___(that/ it/ which/ this) a rule to get up early every day.

  12. PART II 所有代名詞 • 所有代名詞 = 所有格 + N • my + N = ____________ • our + N = ____________ • your + N = ____________ • his + N = ____________ • her + N = ____________ • its + N = ____________ • their + N = ____________ mine ours yours his hers its theirs

  13. 所有代名詞的用法 • 避免重複 The book is my book. mine • 雙重所有 a, an, this, that, these those, some, many + N of + 所有代名詞 any, no… • 我的一個朋友 a friend of __________ • 他的那隻錶 that watch of __________ • 我哥哥的一個朋友 _______________________________ mine his a friend of my brother’s

  14. 我阿姨的很多衣服 _______________________________ • I like many dresses of her dresses. hers • 避免做異類的比較 His hair is longer than my hair. mine many clothes of my aunt’s

  15. EXERCISE • You go your way and I go (my/ mine). • This isn’t my book. It’s ___(my brothers/ a book of my brother/ a book of my brother’s).

  16. PART III. 反身代名詞 my own myself your own yourself himself his own herself her own itself its own ourselves our own yourselves your own themselves their own

  17. 反身代名詞的用法 • 主受詞同一人時 He killed himself. • 加強語氣 I myself saw the king. I saw the king himself. • 所有格 I have a house. I have my own house. 強調我本人看到 強調看到國王本人 強調有自己的房子

  18. 反身代名詞慣用語 • by oneself= alone獨自 • enjoy oneself= have a good time • seat oneself=sit= be seated • dress oneself in= be dressed in • devote oneself to 專心於 • help oneself to 自行取用 • pride oneself on= be proud of • make oneself at home 不要客氣 • come to oneself 甦醒

  19. EXERCISE • I saw the teacher (him/ himself). • If you aren’t careful, you will cut (you/ yourself).

  20. PART IV. 指示代名詞this, that, these, those • that與those可用以代替前面提過的名詞,以避免重複;單數用that, 複數用those Ex: The price of this table is higher than __________ of this chair. Ex: The ears of a rabbit are longer than __________ of a cat. that those

  21. 指示代名詞 this, that, these,those • this=the latter後者; that=the former前者 Health is above wealth; this cannot give so much happiness as that. • Those who…= people who… Heaven helps those who help themselves. wealth health

  22. EXERCISE • The color of my coat is different from (that/ those) of yours. • The students of your school are more diligent than ___(my school/ these of ours/ mine/ those of mine).

  23. some/ any • some用在肯定句 any用在疑問、否定、條件句 兩者皆可修飾可數及不可數名詞 I want some meat/ apples. Do you want any meat/ apples? No, I don’t want any. If there is any left, give me some. • 期待對方回答yes或勸人吃東西或請人幫忙時,問句可用some We are having coffee. Would you like some? 肯定 疑問 否定 肯定 條件

  24. other / another • one…the other ●○ 一個~ 另一個~ I have two dogs; one iswhite and the other (is) black. • one…the others ●○○○○○… 一個~ 其餘的~ Five students made this exhibit; one was a boy and the others were girls.

  25. other / another • one…another…the other ●○⊙ 一個~一個~另一個~ There were three men. One was blind, another was deaf, and the other was lame. • some of…the others… ●●●… ○○○… 一些~ 其餘的~ I know only some of the students; the others are strangers to me.

  26. other/ another • another 又一; 另一 I don’t like this one. Please show me another. • one thing…another To learn is one thing; to teach is another. • one after another “一個接一個” The students left the classroom one after another.

  27. Some + UCN…; some + UCN… Some reading is interesting; some (reading) is boring. Some + CN…, other + CN… Some habits are good; other habits are bad. = Some habits are good; others are bad. Some +(CN)…; some(=others)… Some (people) like swimming; others like jogging. There are many TV programs. Some are good for us; others will have a bad influence on us. Some said yes; others said no. 有些~有些~ 的句型

  28. EXERCISE • Be kind to (other/ others). • To say is one thing and to do is (another/ the other). • I don’t like this one; please show me (another/ the other).

  29. each/ every

  30. each/ every

  31. 全部 全無 任一 兩者 both neither either三者以上 all none any • I know both of the two girls. • I know all of the three girls. • I know neither of the two girls. • I know none of the three girls. • You may take either of the two books. • You may take any of the three books. • He comes here (each/ every) two days.

  32. PART VI. 疑問代名詞

  33. Who, whose, whom • Who作主詞或主詞補語 Who is he? Who took these pictures? • Whose作疑問形容詞 Whose bag is this? Whose shoes was he wearing? • Whom作受詞 Whom did you see? By whom was she killed?

  34. what • 甚麼What is your name? • 職業、身分What are you? I’m a teacher. (who姓名、關係 Who is he? He’s Lin./ He’s my uncle.) • What可當疑問形容詞 What time is it?

  35. which • 哪一個 Which do you like better, summer or winter? Which of these is yours? • Which+N 可當疑問形容詞 Which watch do you like better?

  36. 使用疑問代名詞應注意事項 • 間接問句為: 疑問詞 + S + V Do you know where he lives? No one could understand what he was saying. • Wh- + do you say/think/ believe/ guess/ imagine/ suppose + (S) + V? What do you suppose he will give you? Who do you think came to see me?

  37. 歷屆試題 • Energy can be changed from one form into ___. (A)other (B)others (C)another (D)the rest • The flowers in the garden are more beautiful than ___ in the park. (A)this (B)that (C)these (D)those • The climate of Taipei is not so hot as ___. (A)Tainan (B)of Tainan (C)one of Tainan (D)that of Tainan • My cat caught rats but ___ didn’t. (A)you (B)your (C)yours (D)you’re • We find ___ difficult to cross the road. (A)there (B)one (C)that (D)it

  38. 歷屆試題 • Six students came to the party; one was a boy and ___ were girls. (A)the other (B)another (C)other (D)the others • Don’t speak ill of ___ behind their backs. (A)other (B)the other (C)others (D)another • There are two white buildings on this street. One is the library and ___ is the hospital. (A)other (B)the other (C)the others (D)others • The students of your school are more diligent than ___. (A)my school (B)these of ours (C)mine (D)those of mine

  39. 歷屆試題 • There are trees on ___ sides of the river. (A)both (B)all (C)either (D)neither • I’m sorry I cannot find ___ of the two books you lent me. (A)neither (B)each (C)either (D)any • It was ___ that came here at midnight. (A)him (B)them (C)her (D)they • It doesn’t matter whether there is only coffee or tea. ___ will do. (A)Any (B)Both (C)Anything (D)Either • A: Have you ever seen a living whale? B: Yes, I’ve seen ___. (A)that (B)it (C)one (D)such • ___ who respect others will be respected by others. (A)They (B)Those (C)People (D)One

  40. EXERCISE • The telephone makes ___ possible to get in touch with people quickly. (A)he (B)his (C)its (D)it • The tail of a fox is longer than ___ of a hare. (A)this (B)that (C)it (D)those • A bank is a place where people put ___ spare money for safekeeping. (A)its (B)his (C)your (D)their • ___ of the students was present the day before yesterday. (A)Neither (B)None (C)All (D)Every • I make ___ a rule to get up early every day. (A)it (B)that (C)which (D)this

  41. EXERCISE • When using the telephone to take orders, John learned that ___ is necessary to be courteous and careful. (A)he (B)it (C)that (D)this • I have two friends. One is from Tainan. ___ is from Kaohsiung. (A)Other (B)The other (C)Another (D)Others • I take it for granted ___. (A)to looking for better ways of getting food. (B)that he can speak English well (C)and had received the letter (D)being a good student

  42. EXERCISE • The climate of Jamaica is similar to ___ the Philippines. (A)those of (B)which of (C)one of (D)that of • We have two bathrooms. One is downstairs and ___ is upstairs. (A)the other (B)the others (C)others (D)other • What time is ___ by your watch? (A)that (B)you (C)it (D)this • Many athletes jump rope to warm up for a sport. ___ do it as part of their daily workout. (A)Other (B)Others (C)The other (D)Another

  43. EXERCISE • I think the winner to be ___. (A)his (B)he is (C)him (D)he • Since oceans are so large, ___ seems impossible to hurt them. (A)which (B)that (C)it (D)what • Those young people enjoyed ___ a lot at the party. (A)his (B)their (C)himself (D)themselves • Nearly all animals produce eggs. ___ of the eggs we eat come from chickens. (A)All (B)Most (C)Few (D)None • The climate in Taipei is different from ___ in Kaohsiung. • (A)that (B)this (C)it (D)one

  44. EXERCISE • ___ was Harry Potter that rescued her. (A)That (B)Which (C)It (D)What • On Halloween, ___ is not unusual to see children dressed like witches, black cats, devils, and skeletons. (A)it (B)this (C)that (D)there • If a person breaks these rules, he or she can lose face, and in turn lose the respect of ___. (A)the other (B)other (C)another (D)others • At age 12, Franklin began writing articles for a newspaper, and that made ___ famous as a young writer. (A)it (B)him (C)them (D)her

  45. EXERCISE • For ___ still unsure of how to do with their vouchers, some councilors suggested that the public donate the vouchers to charity. (A)those who (B)who (C)people who (D)those • Some scientists think that the hot weather in this tropical region makes the effects of global warming even worse. ___ believe forest reduction on Kilimanjaro may be the strongest human influence on glacial recession. (A)Another (B)The other (C)Others (D)The others