Download
virtual reality history n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Virtual Reality - History PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Virtual Reality - History

Virtual Reality - History

390 Vues Download Presentation
Télécharger la présentation

Virtual Reality - History

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Virtual Reality - History ECE 8990 Spring 2009

  2. Outline • Review Course Schedule • Virtual Reality – terms and definitions • VR History • Ivan Sutherland – “Ultimate Display”

  3. Variety of Phrases • Synthetic Environments • Cyberspace • Artificial Reality • Simulator Technology • Does it require computers? • Conventional books • Movies • Imagination Virtual Reality - oxymoron?

  4. Virtual Reality • Virtual reality is an artificial environment that is created with software and presented to the user in such a way that the user suspends belief and accepts it as a real environment. On a computer, virtual reality is primarily experienced through two of the five senses: sight and sound. The simplest form of virtual reality is a 3-D image that can be explored interactively at a personal computer, usually by manipulating keys or the mouse so that the content of the image moves in some direction or zooms in or out. More sophisticated efforts involve such approaches as wrap-around display screens, actual rooms augmented with wearable computers, and haptics devices that let you feel the display images. • Virtual reality can be divided into: • The simulation of a real environment for training and education. • The development of an imagined environment for a game or interactive story. http://searchcio-midmarket.techtarget.com/sDefinition/0,,sid183_gci213303,00.html

  5. Virtual Reality • "Virtual Reality is a way for humans to visualize, manipulate and interact with computers and extremely complex data"

  6. Organization • Three-Dimensional Display • Virtual Reality Systems • Important Events

  7. 3D Display • 1838-1948 - Early Systems • 1967 - Traub’s Varifocal Mirror • 1979 - LEEP Optics • 1970s - Computer-based stereo displays • 1985 - Commercial LC shutter displays

  8. Early 3D Display 1838 - Wheatstone Stereoscope 1849 - Brewster Stereoscope 1903 - Parallax Barrier 1915 – First 3D movie 1948 - Holography

  9. Volumetric Displays • 1967 - Traub’s Varifocal Mirror • 1981 – Larry Sher at BB&N SpaceGraph • 1986 - Patent Number 4,607,255 to UNC Chapel Hill (Fuchs and Pizer) RGB outputs interpreted as X,Y and intensity Vibrating mirror reflects the CRT display Speaker used to cause the mirror to vibrate Synchronize vibration and display

  10. Commercial Shutter Glasses for CRT-based Stereoscopic Display • Time-multiplexed stereoscopic display • 1970s – PLZT Ceramic Shutters • 1985 - Commercial LC shutter displays

  11. LEEP Optics • Eric Howlett, Pop-Optix Labs 1979 • Large Expanse, Extra Perspective (LEEP) • Originally for stereoscopic still photo viewing • Lenses correct for intentional camera distortion • Later used in HMDs

  12. LEEP Optics

  13. Virtual Reality Systems 1977 – Apple, Commodore, and Radio Shack PCs 1979 – First Data Glove [Sayre] (powerglove -89) 1981 – SGI founded 1985 – NASA AMES 1986-89 – Super Cockpit Program 1990s – Boom Displays 1992 – CAVE (at Siggraph) 1995 – Workbench 1998 – Walking Experiment • 1929 – Link Flight Simulator • 1946 – First computer (ENIAC) • 1956 – Sensorama • 1960 – Heileg’s HMD • 1965-68 – The Ultimate Display • 1972 – Pong • 1973 – Evans & Sutherland Computer Corp. • 1976 – Videoplace

  14. Link Flight Simulator • 1929 - Edward Link develops a mechanical flight simulator • Train in a synthetic environment • Used mechanical linkages • Instrument (blind) flying • http://www.wpafb.af.mil/museum/early_years/ey19a.htm

  15. Sensorama Morton Heilig, 1956 Motorcycle simulator - all senses • visual (city scenes) • sound (engine, city sounds) • vibration (engine) • smell (exhaust, food) Extend the notion of a ‘movie’

  16. Heilig’s HMD (1960) Simulation Mask from Heilig’s 1960 patent • 3D photographic slides • WFOV optics with focus control • Stereo sound • Smell

  17. Ivan Sutherland • The Ultimate Display – more later

  18. Molecular Docking Simulator • Incorporated force feedback • Visualize an abstract simulation • Used the Argonne Remote Manipulator (ARM) • Fred Brooks - UNC Chapel Hill

  19. Data Gloves • Light, electrical or metal detectors compute “bend” • Electrical sensors detect pinches. • Force feedback mechanical linkages

  20. 1983 - Artificial Reality Responsive Environment • Is an environment where human behavior is perceived by a computer which interprets what it observes and responds through intelligent visual and auditory displays • Contained many of the ideas that define: • VR • Context Aware Computing • Video Place

  21. 1985 - Nasa Ames HMD • McGreevy and Humphries • Wearable immersive HMDs • LCD “Watchman” displays • LEEP Optics • Led to VIVID, led by Scott Fisher

  22. Super Cockpit - Tom Furness • Wright Patterson Air Force Base • Visual, auditory, tactile • Head, eye, speech, and hand input • Designed to deal with problem of pilot information overload • Flight controls and tasks too complicated • Research only • Big system, not safe for ejecting VCASS - visually coupled airborne simulation system Tom Furness, Dean Kocian, and Mike Haas at AFRL

  23. FakeSpace Boom Display - early 1990s

  24. CAVE - 1992

  25. Virtual Workbench-1995 (Responsive Workbench, Immersidesk, etc.)

  26. Effectiveness of VE • UNC Pit Experiment • Fear of Heights a Strong Response • Thousands of visitors • Compelling Experience • Haptics • Low Latency • High Visual Quality

  27. VR Events • 1985 - VPL Founded • 1987 - VR in Scientific American • 1990 – SIGGRAPH Panel Session • 1991 - ICAT (International Conference on Artificial Reality and Telexistence) in Japan • 1995 – IEEE Virtual Reality Annual International Symposium (VRAIS 95). • 1995 – Beginning of Clinical VR • 1998 – DisneyQuest opens • 1999 – VRAIS replaced by IEEE VR Conference

  28. VR Comes to the Public’s Attention 1987 Article by Jim Foley that features the VPL Data Glove

  29. Siggraph 1990 Special Session: Hip, Hype and Hope – The Three Faces of Virtual Worlds Chair: Bob Jacobson, University of Washington Panelists: John Barlow, Author and Songwritter Nolan Bushnell, Aaps, Inc. Esther Dyson, Editor, Release 1.0, Analyst Tom Furness, Human Interface Technology Lab Timothy Leary, University of Pittsburgh Warren Robinette, University of North Carolina Randall Walser, Autodesk

  30. 1995 - First IEEE Virtual Reality Annual International Symposium(now IEEE VR) • VRAIS 93 in Seattle • Research Frontiers in VR workshop at Visualization 93 • “Timothy Leary Wasn’t Invited” http://www.cs.uncc.edu/~lfhodges/UNCCVR/Fall03/VRAIS95.gif

  31. 1995 - Effectiveness of computer-generated (VR) graded exposure in the treatment of acrophobia in American Journal of Psychiatry

  32. Ivan E. SutherlandACM Turing Award Winner 1988 • Biographical Information • General Background • Education • Early Work and Teaching • Sun Microsystems • Summary of Accomplishments • Summary of Publications • Summary of Patents

  33. Ivan E. SutherlandACM Turing Award Winner 1988 • Turing Award Lecture: MICROPIPELINES • Clocked-Logic Conceptual Framework • Transition-Signaling Conceptual Framework • Micropipelines without Processing • Micropipelines with Processing • Impact on Computer Science • Bibliography

  34. General Information: • Born: 1938, Hastings, Nebraska • Parents: Mom – Teacher, Dad – Ph.D. Civil Engineering [2] • High School: In the 1950s, he was one of a very few high school students who had written a computer program • Hobbies: Motorcycles, Ballroom and Square dancing • Proudest Accomplishment: Four Grandchildren

  35. Education: • 1959 B.S. EE Carnegie Institute of Technology (Carnegie Mellon University) • 1960 M.S. EE California Institute of Technology • 1963 Ph.D. EE Massachusetts Institute of Technology • Studied under Minsky [6] • Ph.D. Thesis: “Sketchpad: A Man-machine Graphical Communications System” [2]

  36. Education: • Sketchpad • First major Interactive Graphics System, first GUI • Used coding techniques similar to OOP • Memory structures to store objects • Zoom in and out [2] using clipping algorithms • Rubber-banding of lines • Perfect lines, corners, and joints[4] • Display file for screen refresh • Recursive methods for geometric transformations • Later additions included • Polygon clipping • Hidden surface removal • Elegant algorithms for registering digitized views [9]

  37. Education: • Sketchpad • The concept of the constraint as a method of specifying details of the geometry of the picture • The ability to display and manipulate iconic representations of constraints • The ability to copy as well as instance both pictures and constraints • Some elegant techniques for picture construction using a light pen • The separation of the coordinate system in which a picture is defined from that on which it is displayed • Implications of some of these innovations are still being explored by Computer Science researchers today [4]

  38. Early Work and Teaching • 1963-64 Army and NSA • 1964–1966 D.O.D. Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) • Director of Information Processing Techniques • 1966-1968 Harvard • Associate Professor [2] Quint Foster wearing the Head-Mounted Display circa 1967

  39. Sutherland and Sproull • 1965 - The Ultimate Display paper by Ivan Sutherland • 1968 - Ivan Sutherland’s HMD • - consisted of two cathode ray tubes (CRTs) mounted along the user’s ears • - heavy, so needed support

  40. Early Work and Teaching • 1968-1974 Utah • Co-founder Evans and Sutherland Computer Corporation • Part-time Computer Science Professor at University of Utah [2]

  41. Early Work and Teaching • 1974-1980 California • RAND Corporation • California Institute of Technology • Chairman of Computer Science [2]

  42. Sun Microsystems • 1980-1991 Sutherland, Sproull and Associates • Vice President and Technical Director • 1991-Present • Sun Microsystems • Vice President [2]

  43. Summary of Accomplishments • Honors & Professional Societies (partial list): • IEEE John von Neumann Medal, 1998 • Smithsonian Computer World Award, 1996 • ACM Turing Award, Association for Computing Machinery, 1988 • First Zworykin Award, National Academy of Engineering, 1972 • Member, National Academy of Sciences (NAS), since 1978 • Member, National Academy of Engineering (NAE), since 1973 • Member, Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) • Fellow, Association for Computing Machinery

  44. Summary of Publications • "Sketchpad--A Man-Machine Graphical Communication System," Sutherland, I.E., Proceedings of the Spring Joint Computer Conference, Detroit, Michigan, May 1963, and MIT Lincoln Laboratory Technical Report #296, January 1963. • "Ten Unsolved Problems in Computer Graphics," Sutherland, I.E., Datamation, May 1966, Vol. 12, No. 5, pp. 22-27. • "On the Design of Display Processors," Myer, T.H., and Sutherland, I.E., Communications of the ACM, June 1968, Vol. 11, No. 6, pp. 410-414. • "A Clipping Divider," Sproull, R.F., and Sutherland, I.E., AFIPS Conference Proceedings, Vol. 33, Part I, 1968, p. 765-776. • "A Head-Mounted Three-Dimensional Display," Sutherland, I.E., AFIPS Conference Proceedings, Vol. 33, Part I, 1968, pp. 757-764. • "Computer Displays," Sutherland, I.E., Scientific American, Vol. 222, No. 6, June 1970, pp. 56-81.

  45. Backups

  46. Major Reinvigoration: Hardware Evolution • High expense • PC performance surpasses Graphics supercomputers • SGI RealityEngine (300k tris – 1993) • XBOX (150 mil tri/sec - 2001) • XBOX360 (500 mil tri/sec - 2005) • Large Volume Displays • VR Estimated $3.4 billion industry in 2005

  47. First IEEE VR in 1999 • Announced at VRAIS 98 in Atlanta • First IEEE VR held in Houston in 1999 http://www.cs.uncc.edu/~lfhodges/UNCCVR/Fall03/VR99.pdf • 2003 – Los Angelos, CA • 2004 - Chicago

  48. VPL Founded - 1985 • First VR Company • VPL Research by Jaron Lanier and Thomas Zimmerman • Data Glove • Term: Virtual Reality

  49. 3D Display • 1838 - Wheatstone Stereoscope • 1849 - Brewster Stereoscope • 1939 World’s Fair –Viewmaster

  50. Sensorama – Morton Heilig, 1956 • 3D video (side by side 35mm cameras), motion, color, stereo sound, aromas, wind effects (using small fans), and a seat that vibrated • example: simulate a motorcycle ride through NYC (feel wind, bumpy road and potholes, smell food, …) • Heilig also designed a head-mounted display (HMD) in 1960