IDEOLOGICAL ONE PARTY STATE(TOTALITARIAN) • Also known as a Communist State. • One small political group holds power. • Government policy is based on a an ideology. (equality of all) • It appears in underdeveloped or backwards countries that wish to industrialize. • The former Soviet Union and China are examples.
FASCISM Draws support from lower classes & business. Makes decisions in the interest of the state. Focuses activities on the state.(national) Corporate state (private enterprise) Elitism Ultra-nationalism(ethnocentric) racist COMMUNISM Draws support from working classes. Makes decisions in the interest of the working class. Desire to help working class around the world. (international) State ownership of the means of production. Nationalities unimportant (equally) FASCISM VS. COMMUNISM
Communism! Another form of a dictatorship!!! THE SOVIET UNION
Karl Marx • Marx said one day there would be a revolution that would overthrow the ruling class and set up a system he called communism. • o • Marx wrote his ideas in two books, The Communist Manifesto & ______________________. • The belief was based on EQUALITY
The Russian Revolution of 1917 • Karl Marx believed that Russia was an unlikely place for a communist Revolution because it was a _______ ________________________ • Bolsheviks seized power through a ___________; people faced food shortages, soldiers rioted. • Communists led by ____________ seized telephone lines, railways, banks, electric plants, etc. • Communist Control of Soviet Union was complete in 1921.
Values, Assumptions, and Myths • Communists claimed that the new country was a democracy. • Real power was with the CPSU.
Democratic Forms • Founding myth… • Lenin took control of the “Democratic Soviets” • Councils that set policies and had elections. • Example • “National Congress of Soviets” • Made up of workers, peasants, and soldiers.
Authoritarian Essence • The CP was the only legal political party • This was justified by • Lenin also believed that elections in capitalist countries were simply a “sham” (illusion of real choice).
Authoritarian Essence cont… Democratic Centralism • Issues are discussed ____________________, then resolved by the party congress with the expectation that all _______________________________________. • Eventually used by Stalin to _____________ all opposition and became a justification for strict censorship, imprisonment and executions. • In this way, Stalin ended up controlling the _____________, which controlled the ___________________, which controlled the ____________.
Structure of Communist Party Politburo: Secretariat:
Structure of Soviet Government • Though appearing both democratic and federal in nature the Supreme Soviet (parliament) was not effectively democratic. • Met 2 times per year • Laws first past by Presidium so Supreme Soviet simply rubber stamped legislation. • Real purpose of Supreme Soviet was simply to spread message of Presidium. • Elections were not considered democratic because there was usually only one name on ballot.
Communist Party Membership • Only those who were politically conscious, honest, educated, and dedicated to the party could join.
Large Secret Police Force • Cheka (1917) : Lenin • NKVD (1934) : Stalin • People’s Commissarat of Internal Affairs • KGB (1954) • Committee for State Security
Soviet Government • Federal system • Little autonomy to republics. Autonomy: right to make own decisions • Government controls all levels of government. (Moscow: Kremlin)