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Ancient Africa and the Classical Age PowerPoint Presentation
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Ancient Africa and the Classical Age

Ancient Africa and the Classical Age

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Ancient Africa and the Classical Age

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  1. Egyptians and Beyond Ancient Africa and the Classical Age

  2. Chapter 2 Section 2: The Egyptians Pages 26-34 The First Civilizations5000 BC-332 BC

  3. Teaching Objectives: • Discuss the major achievements of each period of Egyptian civilization • Identify the functions of the individuals in the class structure of Egyptian society • Examine the importance of religion in the Egyptian culture

  4. Vocabulary Geography • Dynasty • Pharaoh • Theocracy • Polytheism • Monotheism • Hieroglyphics • Lineage • Griots • Egypt • Nile River • Kush • Sahara • Kalahari • Niger River • Congo River • Zambezi • Red Sea • Atlantic Ocean • Indian Ocean Key Vocabulary and Geography

  5. Locate the following on the map • Egypt • Nile River • Kush • Sahara • Kalahari • Niger River • Congo River • Zambezi • Red Sea • Atlantic Ocean • Indian Ocean

  6. The Egyptians • Predynastic • 3100 – 2700 BC • King Menes unites Egypt • Old Kingdom • 2700 – 2200 BC • Pyramid Age • Middle Kingdom • 2000 – 1800 BC • Princes of Thebes • New Kingdom • 1600 – 1100 BC • Imperialistic Egypt

  7. Egyptian Society and Social Classes • Upper Class • Priests, court nobility and land nobility • Middle Class • Skilled artisans, traders, teachers, artists, doctors and scribes • Lower Class • Slaves and peasants

  8. Religion Plays a Key Role • Theocracy • Polytheism vs. Monotheism • Mummification • Good Conduct Hieroglyphic showing mummification

  9. What Did the Egyptians Contribute to Society? • Religion • Theocracy • Writing • Hieroglyphics • Math • Calendar • Building • Pyramids and Sphinx • Medical advancements Example of calendar

  10. History’s Mysteries

  11. Africans HADto Adapt • The geography of Africa helped to vary cultures • Coast • Desert • Savanna • Forest

  12. Create this chart in your notebook…

  13. Farming Herding How did the conditions force African Farmers to Adapt?

  14. Kush • Hieroglyphics • Not deciphered • Ironwork • Stronger tools and military • Cultural center • On a trade route so many people passed through

  15. Government Develops as life gets more complex • Lineage • Religion • Priests that can predict crops and rain • Politics • Chiefs develop power through raising armies, collecting taxes, and settling court cases

  16. The Importance of Historians • Africans passed their history on by word of mouth • Predict how this may cause problems • Griots

  17. The Powerful Empires of Africa • People looked to trade • Silent Trade • Ghana • Wangara—Gold for salt • Mali • Songhai • Taghaza—Salt for gold

  18. The ancient kingdom of Ghana • Large empire based on trade and agriculture by 600 AD • Controlled the gold trade • Strong central government controlled by a partly divine king • Appointed officers • Final judge in court cases

  19. The Power Player • When the king appears in public… • Servants • Princes and Advisers • King controls the gold • Trade • Taxes

  20. Kumbi-saleh • Capital of Ghana • 2 cities • King • Traders • Decline • Attack of the Almoravids

  21. The Mali Empire • Sundiata and the king of Ghana had a past • Convert to Islam • Timbuktu becomes a center of wealth and learning

  22. The Songhai Empire • Struggled to seize power • Sonni Ali takes power as a brutal tyrant • Led by fear

  23. Askiamuhammad • Successor to Sonni Ali • Reversed the harsh policy • Expands the Songhai Empire

  24. Songhai Decline • Most organized and efficient West African states • So what happened?

  25. East Africa • The trade winds blew sailors back and forth between India and Africa • Islamic trade of the 7th century

  26. Kilwa in Present day Tanzania • IbnBatuta • Most beautiful and well constructed towns he had seen • Large palaces • Mansions • Mosques • Town squares • Arched walkways

  27. Swahili Culture Thrives • Swahili Culture • Blend of Islamic, African, and Asian cultures and languages • The Portuguese try to set up trade with the Swahili

  28. Trade turns Violent • Trade on the East African coast was peaceful until the Portuguese showed up!

  29. ZimbabWe develops in the interior • In 1868, a European hunter stumbled across the ruins of this civilization!

  30. Founders of zimbabwe • The Shona • Descended from the Bantu people who probably migrated from the Congo forest • By the 1400’s, they were well developed

  31. Zimbabwe—The city and the ruler • Semi-divine King • Palace was a busy place! • 1000 people lived there including the king, his wives, advisers, and officers

  32. Decline of zimbabwe • Portuguese trade • Internal quarrels of the ruling family • Ndebele—people from the south attacked • European prospectors

  33. The forest states developed strong governments • Agriculture and trade flourished • Benin • Dahomey • Kongo • Asante • Slave trade especially

  34. Benin • Strong kings (Obas) help Benin grow wealthy and powerful • 1000s AD-1st Oba • 1300s—Oba Ewedo • 1400s—Oba Eware the Great

  35. Benin • Religious rulers • Role of women • Government

  36. The town is composed of 30 main street, very straight and 120’ wide, apart from an infinity of small intersecting streets. The houses are close to one another, arranged in good order; they have roofs, verandahs, and balustrades [railings]…they wash and scrub their houses so well that they are polished and shining like a looking-glass…They are people who have good laws and a well organized police. Dutch geographer’s description

  37. Europeans Arrive in West Africa • 1472-Portuguese arrive in Benin to trade muskets and goods for gold • By 1500, English, French and Dutch were also trading with Benin

  38. Slave trade • Slavery was allowed • Begin to kidnap • Middle Passage • 10 weeks long ship ride • Held in chains packed below deck